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4o /&r4.. 




ESSSSSI^I 



Games designers 

Graham Tiiylor looks al 
(hree different games 
designers — programs 
which enable you to write 

own arcade and 
adventure games. See page 
18, 

Commodore 64 

Czes Kosniowski explains 
how Irigononielry functions 
can he used for diffeteni 
programming tethniques 
page 31), 

Vathalla 

Graham Taylor lalks lo 
John Peel of Legend about 
the making of Valhalla. Sec 
page 1(1. 

New releases 

le latest software 
:s including Jumbly 
DKTronics. Seepage 

I^STAR-I 

I Abandon Earth I 
I on Vic20. See I 
I page 10. I 

Lgame^I 



News Desk 



Oric 2 gets 
go-ahead 



ly Edenspring Invcsimenis, 
l^iic has pul back plans for an 
[BM PC compatible micro. 

Instead, the company will 
50 ahead with developmenl of 
i new home computer — ihe 



J Com- 



wirh the Elec 
madore 64 machines. 
The Oric 2 will be broodly 

machine. It will run the same 
form iif Basic in an improved 
Oric Rom containing some en- 
lia commands including Verify 
and Merge. According lo Tan- 

"'All Ihc existing Tanwft soft- 
ware will work with the new 

With 64K Ram, the Oric 2 
will have more mcmary than 
Ihe Oric 1, Most of ihe addi- 



Thtf Otic 2 is scheduled I 
unch in early Mutch and v 
ipear after the new Sine! 
rofessional computer', m 
:pccicd in laie February, 



What future now 
for Atari? 



THERE i5 mcrcasmg specula- 
tion (hat Warnei Communica- 
tions may sell ils ailing Atari 
computer division, 

purchase by Australian pub- 
lisher Rupert Murdoch of 6 7 
percent of Warner Com 









(hich hi 
cess of S5(H)m in (he last nim 

It is now considered possibli 
that Murdoch may try to swa| 
his shares for Wurnei Bro: 





Timm 



Continued on page 73 



BRITAIN'S BEST-SELLING MICRO WEEKLY 




The first program in Software Farm's 
HIGH-RES RANGE! 



■YOUR COMPUTER" XM« FAIRl 

, STAND V25 (SINCLAIR VILLAGE) 1 

) WEMBLEY CONFERENCE CENTRE / 

DECEMBER 15-1S 






ZX-81 Resolution identical to the SPECTRUM 
without any additional hardware!! 



In 1849 the Great 
America n Gold rush started. 
Almost everyone who could, 
sold up everything and 
dashed to the west coast to 
look for this precious metal 
- including YOU! 

You must dig for those 
nuggets (1) - But watch out for 
the giant rats (2) They burrow 
through the earth (3) to gel into 
your tunnel. You can delay them' 
for a while by knocking down 
a support (4j which causes a 
small cave-in (5) to block 




but the further you have to go 
to replenish tliat mound! Once 
all nuggets have been collected, 
a cave opens (1 ]] allowing you 
to pass through to the next 
stage - if you can reach it! This 
gives you more rats - but less 
snakes to destroy them with!! 
Skill levels 

Extra man every 10.000 
points 

Hal) of Fame 
,^_^ _ _ -_ ^ Define your own 

ACTUAL ZX-81 ^'"- "» "' 



,hei, w,v.b.. toucan only §(;U££^ DISPLAY '-™"'* 



play or use with any 



destroy them by releasing 
snake (6) from it's nest (7). when 
it heads straight for the surface, 
destroying everything in it's way 
All the lime the Gremlin (8) is 
busy digging it's way through 
your waste earth pile (9) lo reach 
the enlrance to your mine. Once 
it does you have 



escape!! - so you must slop it 
getting there by returning to 
the surface to replenish the 
main mound (9) with the 
smaller pile of earth which 
appears on the surface as you 
dig (10), The deeper yoLi dig 
the more points you score - 
Available from all good computer shops 
or send cheque/P.O. for £5.95 (inc P&P) to: 
Software Farm. FREEPOST (No stamp required) (BS3658)( . Bristol BS8 2YY 



Fantastic and 
unique graphics on a 
ZX-81 (with 16K) 
Only £5-95 - No more than 
rrtany ordinary programs 
A truly interesting and 
exciting game that no 
ZX8I owner can 
afford to be without 




Jl^ 



15-21 December 1983 Vol 2 No so 



Editor 

Brendon Gore 
rs Editor 



Davifl 



elly 



nager 



SoFtware Ed«or 
Gran am Tayloi 
Production Editor 
Lynne Constable 
Editorial Secietsry 
Cieo Clierry 

Adverlisemeril Executive 
Alasfap' li4ac-inlosn 
Classified Executive 
Diane Davis 
Advertising Production 

Administration 

Managing Editor 
Duncan Scoi 
Publishing Dlractoi 

Popular Compuling Weekly 

London WC2R 3LD 
Telephone. 01 -437 4343 
Pjhiiahed by Sunshme Publrcairons Lid 
Tyoeselling. otrgirralion ano priniing by 
ChMfiam Press, Cliesliam, Bucks ,"-, 
Distribuled by S M DislriDufion 
UmdonSWa 01-27dB6ll TelB«26l643 
©Sunshine Publicalions Lid 1983 



[MC] I 



Accuracy 

PoouiBi Compuiing 

^85:jonaibilily, tar ai 



News 


5.7 


Letters 9 


Micfodriva diHIcuKies 

Star Game 10 


Street Lite 16 


Graham Taylor lalks 10 John Peel ol Legeraj 
Reviews 18 


Graham Taylor looks al games aesigrera 


22 


Dragon 


24 


Print roulineby flicharfl Wallor 
Spectrum 


27 


Machine caide series by Trevor Toms 
Commodore B4 


30 


Reviews BXtra 32 


Dragon erhancaments 11 By Keilh and 

BBC & Education 


„ 


Word search Dy Ian ar>d Damian Inger 
Open Forum 


53 


Eighl pages of your ftograms 


69 


TonyBrldgB'BCOiriBr 
Peek & poke 


71 


New releases ED 


LalesL soflware programs 

Tills week 


82 


Top 10 plus all this week's soflware 

Com petitions 


83 



Newspaper magnate Rupert Murdoch 
has spent nearly $1 00m in acquiring a 
6.7 percent share of Warner Com- 
munications. This makes Mr Murdoch, 
in the form of his Nev^s Corporation, 
the largest single shareholder in War- 

This Information is of more than 
esoteric interest because Warner 
numbers Atari among its subsidiaries. 
Atari, once the jewel in Warner's 
crown, has lost more than S536m so 
far Ibis year. 

Both Warner and Rupert Murdoch 
would appear to be anxious to nd 
Ihemseives of Atari as soon as possi- 
ble. Warner can hardly continue to 
absorb losses on such a massive 
scale, while Murdoch's interest lies in 
Warner's (tim and tv operations, Atari 
has suddenly become persona non 
grata in a very big way. 

However, while Warner and Mur- 
doch might wish to offload Atari, who 
would want to buy it? Given the 
current state of the micro market, it is 
extremely unlikely thai anyone will be 
able to turn Atari round and start 
making a prolit -^ at least not in the 
short- term. 

US companies, aware of the prob- 
lems that have beset Texas, Mattel, 
Osborne and other micro firms, are 
unlikely to see any advantage in 
buying At an. But European com- 
panies might see Atari as a useful 
entry to the American market, which is 
potentially the most profitable in the 



'"''*^-"i^-'-''^'^ 



Can you guide Santa up and down 
chimneys and ladders In time to de- 
posit all Ills presents? Find out In next 
week's star game for the Spectrum. 



Subscribe to 
Popular Computing Weekly 



y, SubKrlpUon Deal,, ' 



morlech 



liiiiM 



BLASTERMm0f4 

Al lirsi glance this mignt SPECTRUM 48k E5.50 T 





^^^^^^^^— 


sion ol i "ety populai game 












enougn The Spectrum o^cks 












Oilficully-andinvUesyDulo 

do the same Vqlj then lake « 


■P%1 


in turns to guess each Others 




code Irom Ihe clue supohed 
atler each guess An eilrem- 


' ■i:^/ 


Clearly displayed oaire. wth 






























mey vrere so lew Itiey were 
















Speclrnm haO teen gi.en a 
persona/ily — a rainer flev- 


^^^ ■ 



..a spectacular 

range of software 



Tbe Qjoesfc of Meppgytfl Af 

VIC20{16k)C7.95 or Commodore 64 E7.95 T^ 




COMPUTER 
. MODERATED 
BOARD GAMES 




The original and completeiy unique two player 
games of cunning and strategy, strictly tor more 
demanding games enthusiasts. 

Ife CONFLICT — a full scale military and economic battle 
demanding dear ihougnt and decisive action. 

4fi GALAXY CONFLICT — a complen battle tar control 
of tfie Universe 

Each game:— 

ZX81 (16k)andSPECTHUM(48k)C11.9S 

BBC B', CBM-64, ATARI 800 £14,75 



Attractively boxea containing cassette. 

lull size board, pieces, maps, and 

lull msiruclions. 




POPULAR COMPUTING WEEKLY 



His master's voice sounds 
from Commodore 



COMMODORE will launch 
ils long-awaited Magic Voice 
speech synthesiser unil in 
Januatj. priced oround £5U. 

The small hnidworc add-on 
plugs inio [he eipansion port 
on the Commodore 6*. Soft- 
ware held in Rom inside the 
unit gives it ii vocabulary of 
234 words and letters which, 
with the exception of Z (Zee), 
are pronounced in an accepl- 

As well as the complete 
alphabet and the numbers 1 to 
12 a selection of phonetic 
sounds are included to enable 



, number of 'speaking' 



possible buyers of Atari, with 
the laltei being the more likely 
candidate. The Dutch electro- 
nics giant PhiHps has so far 
failed to make any teal impact 
in the computer and video 
games market. Sales of its 
G70(X) video games machine 
come a poor third behind 



ent in July that Wi 



■rge 



rs at present has a 5(1 
slake in Polygram, 
er half is owned by thi: 
1 company Siemens, 
w companies are to be 
between Polygram and 
s in which Siemens is 
a considerably reduced 



im Ciar 
ir of Atai 



ri UK Si 



result of confusion with ll 

Philips- Warner record deal. 

"Any take-over 



m very t 



ilikcly fr 



Rom cartridge programs are 
planned to accompany the 
Magic Voice, These plug into 
a cartridge port on the top of 
the unit. Among these are the 
Magic Garden and Magic 
TooIIjox educational series of 
talking books from Edata. the 
BJ Bear educational prog- 



Dragon 
'poke' 
runs into 
problems 

DRAGON software houses 
selling programs which use ihe 
so-called 'speed-up Poke' arc 
running into problems of soft- 
ware incompatibility. 

In earlier versions of the 
Dragon 32. the command 
Poke 65-195.0 (Hex; 
HFFD7,0) can be used to in- 
crease the operating speed of 
Ihe Dragon's 6t«)yE processor. 
A number of software houses 
have taken advantage of this 
fact to make their games run 

The problem is that uround 
20 percent of Dragons now 



and therefore the games will 
not run. Among Ihe programs 
affected are Beyond Soft- 
ware's Up Periscope and C- 
Tcch's Fligh! Simu/an'on. 
The Dragon's 6809E proces- 

IMHz and runs in normal use 
at 0.98MHI, The speed-up 
Poke increases Ihe clock rate 
to 1 ,8MH2, It (hen depends or 
the tolerance c 



:hips 









machine will accept the Poke 
command. 

One company which has 
found a solution to Ihe prob- 
lem is Microdeal. Ils programs 

of each game where Ihe Dra- 
gon owner can choose to play 

out the speed-up Poke, de- 
pending on whether oi nol the 
Dragon concerned will accept 

Dragon's Cathy Hyde says: 
,"We do not recommend that 
Dragon users use Ihe Poke 
because we cannot tell what 
long-term harm i( will cause 
the machine. It is not just the 
Dragon's processor which has 
been designed to run al IMHz, 
but the whole design of the 
computer. The peripheral in- 
terface adaptor which com- 
municates with the keyboard 
and parts of Ihe Ram have also 
been designed to work best at 
less than IMHz," 



Paintings by numbers 




THE eleven and a 
ihtiusand visitors w llie 9lh 
ZX Microfair on December 3 
and 4 hand little new / 
ware or software on dispU _ 

Apart from East Londoit 

Robotics' demonstration oliti 

revolutionaiy new Trick-Stick 

Spectrum joynick, inti ' 

ce again centred around 

*■ Spectrum software, 

Richard Shepherd showed a 

new adventure by Invincible 

Island author Peter Coo' 

Urban Upstart. 

SilvcTHift. which has 
ralher quiel in recent months, 
' d three new titles — Frecz' 
Bees. Robot Riol and Sam 

Microsphere displayed £ 
new 48K game. Wheelie. 

Adventure house Phipp! 
Associates launched its Hrsl 
arcade titles - House of the 
Living Dead, Killer Knight, 
an if Loony Zoo. 

And G;7soft aflefed a j 

games-designer program 
Quill — Magic Castle. 
One trend that is very nc 

mcreasingly the Microfairs are 
becoming domimitcd by retail 

with fewer and fewer of Ihe 
software houses choosing r. 



Rotten apples 

APPLE, continumg its 



KOALA Painter, from Au 
diogenic. is a graphics tablet 
for Ihe Commodore 6i. Can 
sisting of a tablet and stylus 
disc-based software and manu 
ai. it enables users to dru<* 

There are facilities for 
selecting colour, creating mir- 



ror image\ copying one part 
of a picture to another and 
erasmg mistakes The user can 
choose between eight brush 
(tzei end 16 colours. 

Koaln Pamter cosM £89.95 
mcludmg VAT from Audio 
genie. FO Box SS. Reading. 
Berks RGI 2SN- 



fighi 



Apples, last week failed in ai 
attempt to ban the sale o 
Taiwanese -made copies of it 
Apple 11 in Australia. 

Ihal the two machines — Ihe 
Apple 11 and The Wombat — 
le by 



>1 DECEMBER 19S3 



mm 



OF THE MUTANT CAMELS 

ASTOUNDING GAME ASTOUNDING COMPETITION 
FIRST PUBLIC APPEARANCE: DEC 16 COMPUTER FAIR (WEMBLEY) 

BE THERE 

GET YOUR REVENGE! 

FOR COMMODORE 64 PLUS JOYSTICK . ' 



OF THE MUTANT CAMELS 

BY JEFF MINTER FROM LLAMASOFT 



m 



m 



j-(irEEnpLaL| J;^ 

1 34 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow G2 5JU. Telephone 04 1 -248 248 1 



CHICKAROO; A word recognition game for 
children. Find Ihe rrlsslng leller Is Ihe Fiame of 
tnis ganiB which can be usaa by up to four 
players. 

PIRATES: A chlldrens game baaed on word 

you reach the end of the planK or else tac9 the 
perils of the deep. 

A vocabulary ot 100 words Is Supplied wllti both 
Of these games, however, parents have the 
option of addlr^g Iheir own data files. 




BBC EDUCATIONAL 





IAD MONTY: lis mealtime lor MONTY the 
flAD python and frogs are on the menu! Guide 
Im round the garden gulping frogs and 
lunching magic mushrooms — beware those 



THE ANIMATOR: The perfect DRAGON 
oraDhics tool allows you to define your own 
d then mal<e them spring to life 



and saved on tape for later use. 

MAD MONTY: A fast and furious version 
snaWe In the garden game tor the MOi 
BBC MICRO. Monty - the well known [ 
— Uvea in a garden Inhabited by juicy tli 
Help him munch his lunch but mind those 



BBC GAMES AND UTILITIES 



ITY: This version of the snake game 
een layouts and five Speeds Irom 
ridiculous. Monty munches frogs for 



COMIHQ SOON: Complele machine code 
toolkit for Ihe 64. Assembler, Disassembler, 
Monitor, Hex dump. 



DRAGON 32 COUMODORE64 

SCREENPLAY SOFTWARE MORE FUN THAN GAMES 
Our range of software includes Qamea but we believe thai your micro should do more than test your 
reflexes. For example, CHICKAROO and PIRATES are educational products designed to help you extend 
your chlldrens' vocabulary. 

THE ILLUSTRATOR turns your TV screen Into an electronic canvas. The only limit Is your imBglnallon. 
DRAGON users are you bored with other people's games? Let THE ANIMATOR help you create your own. 
, ^ LIBERATE YOUR MICRO WITH SCREENPLAY SOFTWARE 



CHICKAROO 
PIRATES 

THE ILLUSTRATOR 
MAD MONTY 
□RAOON 32 
THE ANIMATOR 
MAD MONTY 
COMMODORE 64 
MAD MONTY 



□ 
CD 

CD 



E7.95 
£9.95 
£7.95 






I enclose Cheque/P.O. lo the value of 
made payable to Screenplay. 
SCREENPLAY. 134 St. VIncanI 5' 

ALLOW U DAYS FOR DELIVERY. 



POPULAR COM PUTINS W 



Otters 



storage 
solutton 

iTio own a Sinclair Micro- 
rive, iheic is the slighl prob- 
m of the storage of cartridges 



s clear plastic half) of an 

empty caHeltc box. After all, 

■ lie plenty of spare tapes 



...^.. jack and stand your Mic- 
rodrive cartridges in it, The lid 
will stand on a working surface 
ot the back can be glued to the 



: (he chosen 
Vic Phillips 



soff. Here endelh the com- 
mercial , 

Now that Jupiter have gone 



Computer 
loonie 









IS JUS 



Wc 



By the way. the new Forth 
computer from Microkey is set 
for launch in January. Il 



Remio/t 

IK Course Street 

Brighion BN2 IRII 

PS, Yes, I've met the Iheorelic- 

al Ideal language types Ire 

They're a pain. Forth is a lot 
more versatile than people 



d help o 
old computer loonie. I want a 
Phaenii-type game for the 
Cottimodore 64 — it must 
have the full five screens. 

Can anyone help before I 
crack up? Could you also let 
me know the company, etc. 
Help! 

Merk Roebuck 
S9 Ings Walk 
South Kirkby 
Ponlefmct 
W Yorkshire 
d that I don't know 
of an) nioenu games for Ihe 
Commodore M but I am sure 
il enlsl Perhaps our 



Ace 
club 

IVDecember I The Jupmr 



Microdrive 
problems 

Andrew Fennel I and friend 
are mil ihc only people to 

with ihe new Sinclair Interface 
1 and Microdrive. In my own 
case both worked perfectly, 
with no sign of any problems, 
until a month had passed. At 
that poinl rd either g^l a 
synlnic error when allempting 

■ ■ Sitvc 

I Ihe 



Ihe useful life of a Speclium is 
only just longer than that 

Ian ^faule 

.^BesciinifieW Road 

Ne* MaWen 

Surrey KT3 3IIY 



Rom 
omission 

Thank vou for forwarding 
Garelli Rowlands letter, 
as it highliehled an omission in 
my anicle in the 10-26 Ociober 
issue on making Rom calls. 
There should be eight steps, 
not seven! If step 3.5 STX 
>SA6" is not included, the 
technique will not work. E 
apologise for the frustration 
this will have caused people. 
The eight steps should be as 
follows: 



r Load c 



a Micr^ 



my Interface I (no 12| with 

fortunately, 1 haven't really 
been able lo check whether 
this works correctly as last 
week my Spectrum gave up 
after I plugged in 



and sug 
gest Phil writes to us Sub 
scnption IS £7 for \•i•^^^ N>.ws 

£7 Cheques payalile Hem 

15-21 DECEMBER 19B3 




problem being that s 
add on units do not decodi 
loreq and Read lines cor 

ly- 

which rely on Ihe pull up effect 
of the memory devices, ef '~ 
ensure 255 — this canno 
guaranleed to work. 

To ensure that the interrupt 
will respond as required, it is 



Interrupt 
mistake 

W interrupls on the Spec- 
trum by Alan Went IPCW 
24-30 November). 
The general anicle was very 



the 






y for il 

To do thi.s. we must se 
257 bytes for an interiu 
tor table. Each byte 



Ided to the / register we 
ys jump to the correct 
ess (257 bytes are needed, 
le first byic of Ihe vi 
ess could be at the 256lh 

IS 255). 
my 48K Spectrum I 
Feh (254 dec) as the value 
stored in the table. This mea 
that Ihe inlerrupt address is 
Fefeh (65278 dec). The vecl 
table is placed at address 
Fdoob to Feooh (64768 It 
65024 dec). 

The use of the 7 register ai 
FDH does not cause ani 
IS this 



bytei 



n the St. 
only happens between 4011 
and 7FH. Ihe memory for the 
16K Spectrum. But, this does 
cause problems for I6K own- 
ers who arc unable tu 
technique. The accon 
brief routine will set up the 

Anyway, thanks for i 
tercsting magazine, kee 
.the good work , 

D Allday 

Lyans 

Rmper Road 



LOOP LD (HI.),Crffl 
IIR HL 
DJIE IMP 
LD A, Via !■•« I r*sl>ta 

IM Z iSat lntamipt ■»!■ 



ED56 orr □) 1 itozn off 1 

(ae WMd 

Intamrt roatiH itut* hsr*. 













Abfl 


IMM 


AiA 


CA«lk 




ful<hiiiivii ^aiiii 






As tha last remaining compuler on the 
ttremains of tne planel Earlh, after the 


This game 


or the unem — -""^ 






loads in tv.0 p 


ans, Thetirst —move mo 






great gaiacnc battle of 2056 AD, ii is your 




data lor the Program notes 






job to get the last remaining scientists (4) 


graphics. Tha second part variab 






to the awaiting mother ship, Bui it's not as 


main program 


(This game 










Verlables 










mother ship move from left to right acroas 


Tl TIME 




Mae-EDIB JOVSTI 


DKCONTPOL 




the top of the screen, but there are also 












asteroiOs, aliens and space mines to stop 
your progress. 


BP FIRE 




iaM9-TI10f» MOVE 
29999-30010 OETEC 


OTHER SHIP 

IDM + SCORING ■ 




10 REn**#*#****#***** 




36 


REM* * 






11 REM*MFlIN GRRPHIC* 




3? 


REM*114-PHflS£P * 






12 REH* * 




38 


REM* * 






13 REM* ROUTINE * 




39 


REM*n5-flSTER0ID * 






14 REM* * 




40 


REM* * 






15 REM* EV # 




41 


REM*116-flLIEN * 






IS REM* * 




42 


REM* * 






17 REM* MARK MHMNS * 




43 


REM*************** 






13 REM* * 




45 


P0KE36879. 196 






19 (iEm#ifm*mm**f** 




4g 


PR I NT "38" 






20 REM* * 




47 


PRINT" 4^ |— 1 ,.'%K 1 r^ 


|—|M " 




21 REM* DFlTR * 




43 


PRINT" a_J !—) LJII II 1 


1 1 ] 1 1 




23 REM* * 




49 


PRINT" a 1 LJ 1 II \J !_' 


LJ 1 M " 




24 REM**********!***** 




50 


PR I NT "MS" 






25 REM*LINE * 




51 


PRINT"*— ,"-. m T 1 1 






26 REM* * 




■ 52 


PRINT" a_ LJ U 1 ! 1 






27 REM*103-i03-SHIP * 




53 


PRINT" a 1 1 K in 






28 REM* * 




54 


PRINT"*— 1 1 1 \ 1 1 1 






29 REM*109-LflSER * 




55 


PRINT"«(ia«****USE JDVSTICK*****" 




30 REn* * 




56 


FORT=1TO2000:NEXTT 






31 R£M*119-EEFlM * 




57 


PRINT"T ■ P0KE36369. 255 




32 REM* * 




58 


PRINT"a POINTS 






33 REM*ll£-MflN # 




59 


GOSUB101 






34 REM* * 




60 


PRlNT"MIIia U S 100 


PTS." 




35 REM*113-LfiHEER * 




61 


PRINT"Mia V fl 500 


PTS. " 




62 PRINT"WI!rn R ^ 1090 PT 


S." 










£3 PRINT"liaWamT H KEV 












64 GETR»:IFR4=""THEN64 












65 PRINT-:!" 












65 P0KE36869.248 












67 PRINT" ^r'OU MUST EVfiCUFlTE 


THE LRST 


REMfilNING" 






68 PRINT"NUCLEFIR PHVSICIST 


FROM EARTH. " 








63 PRINT"TO AN FlWBITINQ 


SPRCESHIP" 








70 PRINT"BUT DUE TO THE CLflCTIC WfiR BETWEEN 


RLPHR CENTURl RND THE TERRRNS" 




71 PRINT"LRRGE FiSTEROIIiS flND SPACE 


MINES BLOCK VOUR PROGRESS" 






72 PRINT"n4FlTCH OUT, THE 


CENTURIRNS HAVE HIRED RLIENS" 






73 PRIHTnO EHT VOUR MEN RS 


VOU FIRE 


THEM OUT IHTO SPRCE." 






74 FORT=lTG9e00:NEXTT 












75 PRIHT'T]" 












76 PRIHT"3W***C0NTR0LS**** 












73 PPIHT"Wflr'OU CONTROL THE 


LRUCHEP RT 


THE BOTTOM OF THE SCREEN" 




10 






POPULAR COMPUTING WEEKLY 





?9 PRINT"VCiU CAN FIRE USING THE RED BUTTON" 

80 PRINT"BUT WATCH OUT THE LRUCHER USES THE 

31 FRINT"flNTI-MflTTER BEflMS WITCH PASS THROUGH 

82 PRIHT"TO LflUCH ONE OF THE 3F0URH SCIENTIST PULL BACK OH THE JOVSTICK" 

SB FORT=ITO8000-NEXTT 

99 G0T0121 

181 P0KE56.28:P0KE52,28 

102 F0RT=7168TCi716S+lS4;RERIifl:P0KET,fl-HEXT 

103 DflTFl0. 0.0.0/ 0.1 .3. 7.0. 0.0- 0-6.255.255. 255 
1 DfiTRl . 3. 15, 15, 255. 255. 255. 255. 123. 192,240,240. 255. 255,255,255 

105 DfiTB0, 0.0. 0.0. 128. 192. 224. 15. 31, 63, 255, 31. 31. 15. 15, 255. 68, 60,255,255. 255. 25 
5.255 

106 riflTR255. 204. 204. 255, 255. 255, 255, 255, 240, 243, 252, 255, 248, 248, 240, 240. 7. 7. 3, 3 

1,1.0,0 

107 DBTR192. 192. 123. 128. 128. 0,0. 0.7. 7. 7,0, 0,0. 0.0. 224. 224, 224. 0.0. 0.0,0 

108 DfiTfi3. 3. 1,1. 0,0, 0.0. 224. 224, 192. 192. 128. 128.0.0 

109 DfiTfl0. 42. 42. 255. 42. 42, 0,0. 0.84. 84. 255,84, 84. 0.0 

110 DflTfl34. 35,85. 149,8,0,0,0 

112 DflTR0,28.28.8.62,8,20,34 

113 DfiTfl0,24. 24. 36, 66,255.255.54 

114 DfiTR0,0, 16. 16. 16. 16,8.0,0 

115 DRTR56. 126,255. 126,254,248,60,8 

116 rRTR126,90.255, 189, 189,36.66,36 

120 F0RI=7424TO7431 ■ POKEI -0 ^ NEXT : RETURN 

121 PRINT"3.0flD " 

160 POKE198,3-P0KE632.19:pCiKE633.13-POKE634,13 

a REI1#***VRRIBLES*#** 



2 D$="a>W"-V=0:M=0-TIt="000( 

10 REM***#MRIH ROUTINE**** 

11 GOSUB130 

15 DOSUB6000 

16 GOSUE 10000 

1? lFV=lTHENt1=M-l-GOSUB10000 
IS IFV=2THENn=n+l'GOSUB10008 

! PRINT"fr]Bn"IME:";RIGHT*i;TIt.3> 
21 PRIHTTflBC10y'Sna»iMi»MI5CORE ";sc 

29 REM****SET UP PHASES**** 

30 IFTIS>"000199"THEH68080 

40 IFTIf=''000100"THEHPOKE36879. 8 ;ZX=ia : S=l 

41 IFTI*="000125"THENPOKE36879.42^ZS<;=5 

42 IFTIS="000145"THENPOKE36879. 27 ■ S=0 ■ZX=20 

43 IFTI*="000155"THENPOKE36879,93-ZX=5:S=0 
5B GOTO 15 

99 REri****SET UP SCREEN**** 

100 P0K£36869,255:P0KE36879.CR 
PR1NT"3J" ■ F0RT=S164T08135 : POKET. 230 • POKECOL. 230: POKET+COL, g ■ HEXT 

1002 I3EFFNR(X)=INT(RNr<l)*X+l):FORI=lTO50:R=FNRi:395>+7702 

1003 POKER. 174 : POKEA+30720, FNR<6> • HEXT 

1040 PRINTR*TABC11)"S" _ ____ 

1045 FORI=lTd20:"R=FNR<40)+7S34:POKER. 171 :POKER+COL.FNRC6:): HEXT 
1050 FDRI=lTO35-R=FNR<100J+7966-POKEfl.21:POKEfi+COL. INT (;RND<3>*e>: HEXT 
1652 FORI=lTOIHTCRHDi;i>*20):R=FNR(40>-t-7834 POKER, 22 
1053 PQKER+C0L,FH R <6>:NEX^ 

1056 PRINT"lir\" 

1057 IFLI=4THENPRINT"RRaTDn«RRa "RETURN 
1059 IFLI=3THENPRINT"R a~»lllRRa " 

1061 IFLI=2THENPRIHT" STBanKRa " 

1063 IFLI=1THENPRIHT" ^rSKIIII Rfl " 

1065 IFLI=0THENPRINT" a~Blllll S •; 

1067 GOTO4000 

1078 fiR*="fiLL VOUR MEN HAVE GONE" ^ C>OTO200e0 

1080 ENIi 

2000 ftA*=")!W*'OU HIT VOUR SHIP SO IT FIRED EACti." 

2 001 GOTQ200B0 __^^_ 

21 DECEMBER 1983 



4i 



^/*K 




ESJS 







POPULAR COMPUTING W 



5999 REH#***LftUHCH MEH**** 

4080 1FVT>4THEH1070 

4084 Ml=8l20+^!+l'HI=rH+COL 

4005 GOSUB10000 

400S GOSUB300e4 

4007 POKEni.G;POKENI.0 

4039 MH=5 ■ eO£UE6000 ■ MH=0 ■ POKEMI . 32 

mi m=MI-44-NI=Hl-44^ IFMK7768THEHRETURH 

4012 eCiTO4005 

4£i50 END 

5030 RE!1*#*#J0VSTICK**** 

£001 POKE37137,0:POKE37154.127 

ii¥J<ES3>S»liSSIS12?T,l:U=LI-l.=..8:GaT01855 

600S IFCU2FlHI1128>=0fiNDX<18THEHX=X+l :GOTOe500 

£010 lF<UlFlNB165=8nHD>l>3THEHt<=X-l :GGTO650e 

Sei3 IFCLIlfiND32>=0flNDGHO5THEN8000 

6016 RETURN 

S508 PRIHTflt;THB<XV' S " 

§00 POKEEP.8:POKEBC,10-POKE36877,190:^FORl=15TO0STEP-.2 

5901 P0KE368787l^l44 : NEXT : P0KE36377. 6 : P0KE3e87S. S '■ POKEEP , 32 

59E19 RETURN 

7993 END 

3S08 REM*#*«FIRE**#« 

^001 EP=8120+X+l-BC=EP+30720 

5002 GOSUB30080 

3003 POKEEP, 20-POKEEC.S 

3005 GH=5 : GOSUB6000 ■ GH=0 - POKEBP , 32 

■^_44:EC=EC-44- :IFEP<77e2THENRETLIRN 



3900 REM 

10000 REM*##MOVE MOTHER SHIP*** „,„„.. ,. 

18001 PRINTDi;TflE(M>" SRECRD Rlllllllll EFGliFH jUMIIIIII IJKLMN 

10002 F0RT=1TGZX 

10003 ifn<:ithehv=£ 

10065 POKE36878-15:POKE36876,22e^FORL=lTO5-NEKTL:POKE36376.0^POKE36878,0 

20080 poi<E36S7S?i5^FOR>^X=15TD0STEP-3TOKE36S30.RND<l>*3+n:POKE36881,RNIi(n«2*3 

20B01 POKE36877.160*XX:FORDE=1TO10-NEXTDE,X>^:POKE36877.0 

20010 PRIHT"M";P0KE36S73.8 

20011 GOTO40600 
28338 END 

29999 REn**SCREEH DETECTION** 

30000 IFPEEK(BP>=21THENSC=SC+100:GOTOS900 

30001 IFPEEKi;BP)=171THENRR*="M«S*'0U hit Fl MINE":GOTO20000 

30002 IFPEEK(BP)=I2ORPEEK<EP)=13ORPEEK<BP>=14THEN20e0 

30003 IFPEEKCBP)=22THENSC=SCtl0-GDTO6900 

30084 IFPEEK<MI >=90RPEEK<MI )=10ORPEEK<MI >=1 1THEHSC=SC+1000 -GG=GG+1 ■ GOTO6000 

38005 IFPEEKaiI)=12ORPEEK<MI)=13THEHSC=SC*1000=GG=GG+l:eOTO6800 

30006 IFPEEK(:MIJ=21THENSC=SC-100:G=32:RETURN 

30007 IFPEEKf£P)=llORPEEK<BP>=10ORPEEK<BP)=9THEN28e0 

30008 IFPEEK<ni>=171THENG!=32:RFl*="I!W*'0U HIT Fl MINE" ■GOTO20000 
38009 IFPEEKtMl >=22THENQ=32 ■ SC=SC-1000 ■ RETURN 
30010 RETURN 

39999 REM****END ROUTINES**** 

40000 REM 

40001 P0KE36869,24e-p0KE36379,8:PRIHT":]q" 
40082 PRINTflFl* 

40003 PRINT"MW«UT VOU GOT ";QG; ■PRINT"OF VOURBM NEN SflFTLV OUT" 
40084 PRINT"MBRND SC0RED";3C; :PRINT" PTS. " 
48005 PRINT'-SaaiN fl TIME OF ";RIGHT*';TI$.3> 
48008 FORT=1TO5000 : NEXTT : PRINT"T' 
40010 P0KE3S379,27 
40611 END 
£0000 flfl*="VOUR TIME IS U P" :GOTO2BS00 _^^_ 

15-21 DECEMBER19afr 



TURN YOUR PROGRAMME 
NAAOO 30ISdn 

Now you can add another dimension to your games. 

Swap direction, swap functions, confuse your friends. 

In fact you can add almost any twist to your games with 

Stonechip's Programmable Joystick Interface. 




You can also listen to them 

with Stonechip's Echo Amplifier. 



Prosrrammable Joyjtiek InterfBce. This 

any Spectrum software 10 be used witi 
irrespective of which keyboard keys have i 



prosrarrming is actiieved by hardware. Used 
Atari -compatible joysticks. Simply plugs into 
expansion port of ZX-Spectrijin. No i 
to make, ro additional power supply requi 



Echo Amplifier. How would you liire to listen to the 

output from your ZX-Spectrum without ear strain? The 

Stonechip Echo amplifier can do this for you as well as easing 

the tedium of saving or loading of tapes and enlarging the range of 

tape recorder compatibility with the computer. The amplifier has volume control 

inge adequate for most uses, and a tone control for harsh a mellow sounds. A swiicted 

interface removes the need to swap leads during 'SAVE'ing or 'LOAD'ing. b 

and the desired function is selected on the three posttic 

e 'CUE' facility enables an audio cue to precede the program tieing 

'SAVE'd on tape, a decided advantage when searching thnaugh a 

oe. The Echo simply plugs into the Ear. Mic and Povv^r 

Df the computer and does not require an additic 

■r supply. The expansion port at the rear of the 

"or use with other peripherals 

and tfic ut 

case custom designed ic 
complement the 
ZX-Spectrum 



/' 




POPUI_AR COMPUTING WEEKLY 



Ji^ 






liHi. 




!1 DECEMBER 1983 



street Life Street Life Street Life Street Life Street Life Street Life 



The legend continues 



Graham Taylor looks at the men 
legend brought to life 

To dale. Legend Software Has released we'll is: 
one gams — a game ihau flepending spring, 
whicfi charl you believe, lias occupied Neei 
3 o1 the lop live pnsJIions since Ihe 
Is release anO looks sel lo remain 1^ 
Christmas and beyond. The garni 



e going tc 



For a game ' 
surprisingly little I 
ipany, Bui, r( 
i2-Veai-oia w 
disappointed Vamaiia is ine end result oi 
inths ol coding by a team of 
lajorily ot whom are very 
expenenced programmers 

iilitary operation was mas- 

. managing director John 

The idea ttial we should do an 

>d graphics adventure goes back 

wo years. It really is the first logical 



behind Valhalla - a Norse 



/. Valll 






le idea of inieractiue movies Is prelly 
alic. We wanted a name tor Ihe 
company trial would Imply something 



l''s/(lbut Jatin would give away few 
aboul It. "II won't be siaggeringly different, 
but if will definitely be an improvement — 
we ve learnt a lot from Valtialiar 

John Peel has been Involved in compu- 
ter software tor quite a while. He slatted 
Premier Publications, which later became 
Ptemiat fulicrosystems — now familiar tor 
a Dragon disc drive. He sold that company 
to set up another one familiar to Spectrum 
owners, Microl. 

"Microl was an idea waiting for a com- 
puter. Whan the Spectrum was announced 

and Leam, came out wilhin days ot the 
computer. " 
Microl was successful in an unspectacu- 

ing Vaimila "The cost of VBlhaHa was at 
least E70,000 with all Ihe development 
work and other outgoings. We were com- 
millad to selling a lot of programs to break 




Charles Goodwin, James L 
Ostler and John. Several of ih 
ex- IBM employees, f^one ot II 
ever played a computer advenlure before 
starting on the ptojacl, although somt 
were Dungeons and Dragons lans. 
Jan Ostler was responsible tor many ol 



arly, tl 



■The I 



thing I 



Legend was no accidi 
ploughing through did i 

Valhalla has graphics and chaiaciers 
loosely based on Norse mylh. Back- 
grounds depict foresls. castles. 



spent days The company has already rf 



bought tl 



1 atrai 






lack of protes- 
ts bugs — 
sufficiently 



ol 



Turbo Pofs- 
1 will be ploughed back into 
ther projects," 

Legend will be licencing Movisolt to 
companies. The liope Is Ihat il will 
i adventure game eguivalent ot 
CPM — so standard that many ci 

' tor Its easy imple- 
ne* machines, 
"What's important is the size of memory 
dBK is more or less mandatory — but I 
<n't anticipate rr 




POPULAR COMPUTING WEEKLl 



street Life Street Lite Street Life Street Life Street Life Street Life 



Oaieks." 

s Legend 
weecli recognition, "ll's rol that Oifficuit 
gel a computer to recognise speecl!, t 
' 's difficult 

tions, ie, wfien everyone shouts 
Assuming ttiese problems ar 
John Is very 

'h plenty o1 memory, plus good 

apBech, plus speech recognition, there is 

sually Indlslingui 
tv picture with characters 

potential 
John actually sees 

ill sorls ol different ' 

s of themes whrch peopli 



play rough. I 

in three or tour manulac- 

le next few years — then 

of standardisation under 

3 Movisofl can fourish," 

Some of [he lessons leaml from Valhalla 

will bear tfuil in non-adventuring areas, 

says Jan. "There is no sensible reason 

why computers si 

people ju 
'oni discovered how to wrrte prograrr 

something planned 
at will help to change I' ■ - ■ 
Legend are giving li 
project w 

iai intelligence technique 
even more sophisti- 




Legend seems a peculiar mixtu 

dayOreamers, who've proved their dreams 

least partly possible, and tairty 

' ■ playing close attention 

Is requirements. It 

project. 
John Peel sums up Valhalla ir 
following way: "I would call it a quetifled 
certainly we've proved that a 
tings are possible on a cheap 
computer ihal everybody said wi 
impossible. More than that, I think we 
introduced the basic concept to peoi 
Naturally Ihete are a lot of things t wo 
change about Valhalla, things which co 




SUNSHINE 



Publishers of 

Popular Computing Weekly, 

Dragon User, 

Commodore Horizons 

Micro Adventurer 



AUTHORS 



Sunshine already publishes 
selling list of computer boolis 
But we are always looking for new ideas and 
It you have an idea and think you could wnti 
why not write to us and find out what we cai 
David Lawrence, Book Editor, Sun 
12/13 Little Newport Street, London V 



TWO GREAT NEW GAMES 

FOR THE 16/4eK SPECTHUM 



n THE ARCADE ENTHUSIAST 



SPECTRAL REPEAT FOfl the whole family 



PLAZASTAR LTD. 

SeVWAHD HOUSE, ABINQDON flOAD 

NUFRELD TRADING ESTATE, POOLE. DORSET 



21 DECEMBER 1933 



REVIEWS 

In the driving seat 

Graham Taylor looks at three games designers and 
compares the results 



Does the following peilern sound tamil- 
iaf? Yqu buy a compuler alter monlhs 
anO saving. For a wliiie you 
avidly, you even leain a 
imounl ol Basic program ming. 
There follows a period ol increasing d 









programs a 









likely 

lop software houses — 

gradually your compuler gets lefl on the 

--" more, a sad, lonely sight. 

tiope lo gel irom having a 

computer is a Kind of technological Lego — 

endlessly ctiangeable toy The problem 

that jusl buying commercial piograms 

doesn't bring Ihe salisf action of creating 

yourself. 

na to bring oul your machine from Ihe 

! Pack to computing — Ihe games 
designer 



iign your game in two dislincl 
- Player and Opponent. Within 
jn you use a simple, Basic- 1 ike, 
lo determine the pallern ol 
and the score values. Uove- 
msnt Is by a minimum of lour pixels at a 

bound to be fairly jerky. 

The language is easy to use. the eight 
poinis ol the compass are assignee! num- 



e opponent ; 



d player to 



comes with eight ready-made games, 
ol which mighl have been marketed : 
csssfully in lis own right in Ihe early daysol 
Spectrum games. 

The main reason lor the quality ol tt- 
games is the provision of a sprite gener- 
ator within the program — independent 
graphic shapes whose movements can be 
individually defined. Sprite movemeni is 
smooth and last and is the basis for most 
arcade machines. Using simple cursor 
controls any shape may tre assigned, up to 
32 spnles, as may any colour. 

Any of lour game formats can be 
selected — Invaders, Defender, Asteroids 
or Beserk type The difference between 
Ihe game lies in the screen layout and Ihe 
position and m 
2/ spaceship; 



Thes 






own games, using 

menus or special languages. The result is 

far more professional game that is faster 

lan anything written in Basic. The price 

M pay IS some degree ol reslnction in Ihe 

nds of game you can create. 

Although the packages reviewed here 

fe predominantly Spectnjm- based, you 

an expect to see similar programs being 

lade available tor other machines shortly. 

To begin with though, CoCo II. a pm- 

gram for the Vic20 that's been around lor 

quite a while, but hasn't been distributed 



senes of commands like Move I 5, Move 
4. T2etc meaning SlVfor 5, 4 pixel units, 
then WforfEunils. 

Shapes are designed using a simple 
user-defined graphics generator, operated 
by joystick — you just fire to turn a pixel on 
or off. The program comes with an exten- 
sive manual and one sample game which, 
unfortunately, doesn't really show the 
pn^gram off at its best. 

The problem with CoCo II is Ihat the end 
results are rather disappointing — they are 
not really very much better Ihan you could 
do with only a limited knowledge of Basic 
— Ihe only exception lo this being the ease 
with which you can create shapes, but 
then there are plenty ol programs an:iund 
to help you do that for far less money. 

In lerms of the quality of the end result. 
Games Designer from Ouicksilva is a far 
more impressive package The program 









n of tl- 



; attacking 
and base movement limited 
right. In Asteroids tormat, the 
placed centre screen with 






Using a series ol menu options, soi 
3n be assigned lo shapes using a sii 
ut effective sound generator The m 

3w many aliens move where and at what 
Tie. Movemeni is almost Infinitely v, 
Qle and is programmed In a similar we; 
■ " ■ h numbers assigned to dlrec- 
le display shows you the pattern 
jro creating 
Other options on the menu allow lor 
star background and optional features Ilk 
whether or not your ship has a shield. Yc 
may also select which, if any, of your 
waves of attackers are able to fire bs 



; I KdJM^uiajiiirig.i ^a)rii£> jJu|jjjj^E^^ 



S. . .51JI 

1-5 FLI 

^7 CURSdi 

k. ..CURSOR 



iilrl.f 



i t\ \,\\ 






»» — ■ 
nt»tt«- 
nnstt 
snnnnnnn 

JIB 

- n» 
- - »» 

BtJ 

■ - «» 



,R COMPUTING WEEKLY 



REVIEWS 




One of Ihe most impressive tealures oi 
the Games Designer is I 
the afiens. By Oesigning 
sprites, a menu option allows you to switch 
quicAly betwen them — thus, space invad- 
threaleningty, or 
spheres can appear to spin. 

If you like fairly straightforward alien 
bashing, then Games Designer is for you 
— you really can create garnes as good as 
available commerciaily, but fo your 
own specilicalions. The only 
you really 

each game. 

Iha four predetermined (oiTn; 

Ab proof that 
creating games <ii<ii 
style games, Gilsoft 
The Ouill - - - 



1 west from b 
1 need to decide whal objects < 



torch must be switched on before you go 
down to the cellar otherwise you tall and 
break your neck. 



To use The Ouill properly requires som 


e associated with each r 


3om and the Objects 


effort and some ejpenence — it is absi 


. found there. The mos 


Oitlicult section is 


Fkm 


Program 


Coat 


Gliscn 


Ths Quill 


E14.95 








Barry 






South Glamorgan CF6 8LE 




































Hampshire 






MapBOtI (OisLrlbulorB) 


Coco 2 


E19,2S 








Hadleigti 












Essex SS7ZBB 







It's not difficult lo use, but it does require 
logical thought, particularly it you want to 
create brain-teasing puzzles in Ihe game. 

For an adventure fan, possibly the only 
thing more satisfying than solving puzzles 
is creating your own and watching some- 
one else trying to solve them — particular- 
ly when yoj can populate your adventure 
with people and places known lo [hose 
likely lo try and solve it. Gilsofl will even let 
you market your Qu/W-wrillen adventure — 
they only ask tor a mention. Quill supplies 
the programming (In machine code), all 
you have to provide is some thought, 
planning and perseverance. 
Despite the odd reservation, all these 
be recommended. They 
It oreaine new life into your miens, 
iVf by putting you back in the dnving 
and letting you find out what you can 



15-21 DECEMBER 1983 



NOW YOU CAN LIFT STATIC DRAWINGS, PHOTOGRAPHS, ETC RIGHT 
OFF THE PAPER AND BRING THEM TO LIFE INTO YOUR PROGRAM! 




™o POTENT FEATUBES COMBINE TO BRING .OU UNIQUE NEW TOWER OVER '"""'^C™" ="*™'^f ' .. 




CHRIStTIaS RED ALERT!! GU4RANTEED ISl CLASS SAME DAV DISPATCH!! 

■>.», i | !B HI. i iWJ. II IJ=I I . I . I LJJ.Ij; | | |'™i'»'*'^-"^^*-IMT:UI-J •"■■'"•' 

■k^UAi^ii "'■■'■•"'?■■_■_" "._„. . . ...F^^..c>i>Fri-.iiruTiTCMc nn vni i 



PROGRAMMING 



One hundred and eighty 



Andy Wilson concludes his series on structured 
programming for the ZX8 1 

I asl week we looked al assembly Ian- earlier. This is a delibi 
Lguage. I now hope lo give a tew mare 'o i"" ■" "" ' 



As llie procedures 
before they are called I 
procedure definitioi 
Ihe program Alteri 
)w your scruples lo 



atively, you c 



earlier. This is a deliberaLe move intended 
lo show how easy it can be lo follow the 
gist 0l a reasonably siruclured program. 

Although I have not used REMs to 
actually eiplain the program, I have used 
Itiem to help clarify the structure. REMs 
followed by a line or more of spaces are 
used 10 separate parts of the prograrr, 
jons at the end of while REMs followed by graphic shitted 7s 

are used to underline procedure names. 

called from within The program was whiten 'top down': 

procedures or even iteratively; ie, a thai is Ihe outline of what procedures 

procedure can call llselt, but Keep one eye would be needed, and how they would 

1 the procedure stacki 'elate to each other, was decided before 

One of the shodcomlngs of the routines any actual code was written. Naturally this 

that parameters cannot be passed to outline has oHen changed by the time a 

and from procedures. We can, however, program is complete, but this method still 

simulate this facility in the same way we helps —'•- ■■ ' '- ■■■"'"=*='■'' vn„ 

might when using Gosubs, eg: 



should get a rough idea 
program works simply by k 
procedure names and whi 

appropriate procedure XFacto- Nevertheless, 



5tO LBTXFACTOniAL = USI CALU'HOC 



king at 11 



a possiule dail throw, and sees if it is a 
double or treble Called by Scora'n. 

Scoreln: inputs the score and converts it 
from a string to an integer. Called by 
Round 

Round: gives a player three throws, i 
each dart to the round score and tat 
away from the score needed to w 



a Round for each player II II 

prints the new one. Called by 
program. 

Win: if a player's running score 
tiis/her last dart was a double >.. - — 
we call Win. A polite message is printed, 
a note is taken of who won. I is set to " 
in order to leave the Fo' loop, and tt. 
Won flag is set. Called by Round. 

Main Program: starts by calling the Win 
duction and setting up two strings for Ih 



to 2 



any other variable we may wish to use. you intend 

Listing 7 is an enample of a full program you do so first, 
written using the routines. It ia supposed to cods of coursi 



would not go ami 
1 the program I sui 
after Loading the ma 
I. then Run it. This si 



3 type 



headings and spaces. The — _. 
program is repeated until the reply lo 
"Play Again''" prompt is not'/"- A 
initialising the variables and the sen 
we keep Playing until the I 



flag is 



rief elplanatlon of ea<: 
procedure, in reverse order, starling with 
Inlro: I hopa you car guess what this doe 

Called by the main program, 
Scrollup: as the name suggests scrolls If 

screen up one line, keeping the curre 



Presuming y 
I hope you t 



>w how to play d 



You will I hope, notice the total, 

of the dreaded Galos and Gosutx. Vou will print Una the same. The top line. 1 1 

also in all probability, notice the lack of the reprinted so we don't lose it Note 

explanatory REt^fls whose virtues I extolled Print after Scroll to avo'd upsetting 



in quite easy to fo 
found these articles 
interesiing arid maybe even useful, 11 ym 
were looking for tips on saving memory o 
speeding up your games you have reat 
the wn^ng articles, but if youVe got this tar 
you must have got something from th 
and any comments or even critici! 

welcome. 



270 LET 5COREIN=USR CRULPROC 
2S0 PRINT BT 19,DnRT5s4.+B,:D* 

ago l-ET "" -^™=_,.....„-,.^,.,,o. 

rtRTSCORE 



^''jafi£. t-U 



Eh-s then 1 



as 



■*DRRTS SCOREBDORD*^ 



let p^^=u3r cefproc 

lIt i-ine=uine* 



1 l_ET 



_^- -. LINE = ia then i^ST 5C! 
P = Usw OSLl-PROC 

Nd'nOT BUS" 



88 t .--... 
90 NEXT 



FIT 



ROUNIJ&CORE ■■ 
INE.I*10>5tI> 



310 IF S(ll -ROUND5CORE=0_ftNp_ 
UUT-a OR DflflT5CORE=5a) T1 

^5ag"EoSi^uS??L.DORTS.a on bust 

340 RflND USR CHECK 
350 FOR F=l TO 30 
370 PRim-'^RT 19.0,;St,TRB e;5«.^T 



380 RHND I 



! ENDPROC 



M=U5R CjEFPRQC 



aae let round-osr ejefproc- 

E0S REM ^■■^" .. _ 

210 1 '""' ' 



see PRND U3R 

ass PRIt^T RT S^''S,L"' 
200 LET DRRTS=I>nRTS 



■YOU NEEt> 



430 INPu'l ' 6^' 

440 LET D«rtT IN=uaR 

4Sa PORE UNT XL , MOT 

460 RRNt" USR CHECK 

A70 LET ;>ftPTiCQRe=( 

480 LET Dt 



sot; LET , 



POPULAR COMPUTING WEEKLV 



PROGRAMMING 



THEM LET rJ» = "3S9" 



5*0 IF MU(-T>i 



570 NEXT F 



S*0 PRINT HT 15, lo; -PRESS H f.Erf 

850 PHU5E 4E4. 

S60 RflND USR ENDPROC 

370 REM 

laee rem *m^in_p«od sTfiRTSHCRC* 

laes LET INTRO =U5R CHLLPRQC 



PLAYER 1 



• PRINT RT 19,25; ■YOU WON" 

550 LET yiNNER=I 

S30 LET I=^_ 

650 RRND U5R ENDPROC 

660 REM 

700 LET 5CROLLUP =U5R OEFPROC 

705 REM —-^^^^ 

710 SCROLL 

7£0 PRINT TBB 51.: " " 

730 LET LINe=17 

74-0 PRINT RT 0,0;T* 



1060 LET S(l>'501 
1070 LET 5 O) =501 
1080 LET WON=0 



INT RT 0^1 



7S0 1 



O =U5R E-EFPRDC 

■■ORRT5 5CCREBOR 



^^^- ^r.^,.. ... -,0;'SCDRE5 5HOULC- 
BE ENTeRED IN THE FORM 5H0WN BE 



1070 LET 

1080 LET 

ledS LET 

110O PRII 

1110 PRII 

11£0 RRND USR REPERT 

1136 LET PLHY=USR CRLLPROC 

114-0 POKE UNTIL, WON 

1150 RRND USR CHECK 

ll&Q PRINT RT LINE,UINNER«iei' 



isao POKE UNTIL, U. 

l = ie RftND -USR CHECK 

i250 STOP 

■1360 REM 

■3907 REM •■»^yt°I?!:(y* 



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>1 DECEMBER 1983 



DRAGON 



One page at a time ^^^t^^xtt'-z 






When the Basic program is Run, the 




Richard Walton presents a modilied print routine ---^ne .^^J^^^^^f ^^^ ThTp^ 

tOrtlSting programs ,a^ contains a check on the Data state- 




T-he Dragon Lislroulina is inconvenieni if have an assembler 
1 a long prQgram is to be edilea. The program us 


manls and will slop II an error is found. The 




s a number of useful Pokes in lines 710 to 730 set up the 




AimougH Shin @ can be used to stop the addresses as (ollo« 


s: interrupts which call the program. 




Haling al any time, an aulomalrc "paging" H16A or 362. th 






ol the listing is much more convenient. whenever a l^ey is 


pressed. The program down-arrow key when reguirsd. A further 






Normally this address pressing of the key returns to normal Basic 




such a tacilily. 11 does this by inlercepling contains a 57 coda (ffis) bul Ihe program pnnl rouline, whicti makes the running oi 




the Dragon's normal rouline. replaces this with a 


126 code (Jmp). programs more convenient. 




An assembier listing is provided to show H167 or 359; this 


IS called whenever a When first entering and laslina the 




How the routine works. In addition, a Basic character is printed 


This is intercepted in program listing, leave out line 770 or you 




program is given (or users who do not the way described previously. won't be able to aller it. ■ 




100 ' IMPROVED DRftQDN LIBTINQ 


440 FOR 1-32041 TD 32048 




110 'ROUTINE - R.WALTON. 


430 READ A»iA*-"fcH"+A« 




120 '19/11/83 


460 A-VAL(A«>iPDKE I, A 




130 CLEAR 200,32000 


470 T=T+A 




140 FOR I=32001 TO 32008 


4B0 NEXT I 




ISO READ A*iA*="fcH"+ft« 


490 IF T0771 THEN PBINT"DATA 




160 ft=VAL(A«)iPOKE I, A 


ERROR IN 670"! STOP ELSE Ti=0 




170 T-T+A 


500 FOR 1=32049 TO 32056 




laO NEXT I 


310 READ A»lA»»"lcH"+A« 




190 IF T0439 THEN PRINT"OATA 


520 A-VAL(fi«)iPDKE I, A 




ERRCm IN 620"! STOP ELSE T-0 


330 T-T+A 




200 FOR 1=32009 TO 32016 


540 NEXT I 




210 READ A«iA»-"fcH"+A» 


350 IF T0965 THEN PRINT"DATA 




220 A-WAL<A»).PQKE I, A 


ERROR IN 680" 1 STOP ELBE T-0 




230 T-T+A 


360 FOR 1-32037 TO 32066 




240 NEXT I 


570 READ A«iA«-"tiH"+A« 




250 IF T0442 THEN PRINT"DATA 


560 A-VAL(A*)iPDKE I, A 




ERROR IN 630" I STOP ELSE T=0 


590 T-T+A 




260 FOR I-32017 TD 32024 


600 NEXT I 




270 READ A«iA*-"t<H"+A» 


610 IF TOB53 THEN PRINT"DATA 




280 A-VAL<A*)iPOKE I, A 


ERROR IN 690 OR 700 "i STOP 




290 T-T+A 


620 DATA 20,01,12,B1,0A,26,1D,B6 




300 NEKT I 


630 DATA 7D, 03, 81, 01, 26, OC, 86, 00 




310 IF T07B9 THEN PRINT"DATA 


640 DATA B7,7D,03,B6,39,B7,01,67 




ERROR IN 640"iSTCH' ELSE T=-0 


650 DATA 20,0A,e6,01,B7,7D,03,B6 




320 FOR 1-32025 TO 32032 


660 DATA 7E, 97,01,67,39,20, 01, 12 




330 READ A«)A«-"&H"+A« 


670 DATA 34,06,B6,7D,28,B1,CB,25 




340 A«=VAL(A«)iPDKE I, A 


680 DATA 0B,7F,7D,28,4F,BD,A0,EA 




350 T-T+A 


690 DATA B1,20,26,F9,35,06,7C,7D 




360 hCXT I 


700 DATA 2B.39 




370 IF T0622 THEN PRINT-DATA 


710 POKE 360, J.H7DI POKE 361,S<H26 




ERROR IN 650"! STOP ELSE T-O 


720 POKE 363, SiH7Di POKE 364,t(H01 




3BO FOR 1-32033 TO 32040 


730 POKE 339,126iP0KE 362,126 




390 READ A«iA*-"t[H"+A« 


740 CLBiPRINTiPRINT" 




400 A-VM.(A*)iPOI<£ I, A 


PROBRAH INSTALLED" 




410 T=T+A 


730 PRINTi PRINT" PRESSING 




420 NEXT I 


< DOWN-ARROW > TOGBLES" 




430 IF T0521 THEN PRINT"DATA 


760 PRINT" PROGRAM ON AND OFF" 




ERROR IN 660" 1 STOP ELSE T-0 

1 -^ 


770 NEW 






POPULAR COMPUTING WEEKLY 


_ 



DRAGON 



7D01 2001 
7D03 12 
7D04 BlOA 
7D06 2blD 
7DOB B&7003 
7D0B BlOl 
7D0D 260C 
7D0F BfiOO 
70 11 B77D03 
7D14 Bt39 
7D16 B70167 
7D1'? 200fl 
701B 9601 
7DID B77D03 
7D20 e67E 
7D22 B70167 
7D25 39 
7D2i. 2001 
7D2S 12 
7D29 3406 
7D2B B67D2B 
7D2E BICB 
7D30 250B 
7D32 7F7D2B 
7D33 4F 
7D36 BDAOEA 
7D39 81 20 
7D3B 2iF9 
7D3D 3506 
7D3F 7C7D28 
7D42 39 
7D43 



30 PRT •OOOC 

40 BRA S6TART 

SO STOGGLE NOP 

60 8START CMPA »10 DOWN ARROW 

70 BNE 30UT IF NOT THEN RETURN 

80 LDA STOBQLE 

90 CMPfl #1 IS ROUTINE ON 

I BNE aSETLlST IF NOT PUT ON 
) LDA «0 

1 STA 8TOBBLE BET OFF FLAB 
) LDA »37 
) BTfl 339 
) BRA 30UT 
) 86ETLIST LDA 01 
) STA BTOSBLE BET ON FLAG 
) LDA #126 JUMP TO NEW ROUTINE 
) STA 3S9 
200 80UT RTB 
210 BRA aSTARTl 
220 8ST0RE NOP 
230 aSTftRTI PSHB D 
240 LDA SSTORE f 
250 CMPA »200 
260 BLD 80UT1 
270 CLB 9STDRE 
280 CLRA 

290 SHOLD JBR 41194 8ET« ROUTINE 
300 CMPA #32 BRACE PRESSED 
310 BNE SHOLD IF NOT WAIT 
320 8DUT1 PUL6 D 

INC aSTORE 



) OF CHARS PRINTED 



340 
330 



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15-21 DECEMBER 1983 



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SPECTRUM 



_ HL As wilh Basic, "irue" is represented by 
In l'OVOI'60 <^» ^»'^« 1. wtiile "lalse" is given by the 
■ ■1 1 ^»^i ^^ vafue 0. It may liave been more logical to 


, ,. usethevalue-1 {OFFFFhllor-lruB'.bul 

Trevor Toms continues his machine code series tor me mis »ouid be inconsistent wiih Basic, and 


Spectrum -part three "("JW therefore require some additionai 
^'^ '^ iranslauon when rewriting your Basic prog- 


1 asi week we iookeO at the storage an comes oniy a iittle more complex. By 
L simple data items and glanced at how writing a series of small suDroulines which 


am in machine code. 


The last two are examples ot the way 


the same ideas could be extended into the aperala on the value in registers HL and 


hat true binary tunctions can be im- 






next stage of this development is to con- most of the Spectrum functions aurte 




sider how expressions can be evaluated easily. Listing 1 gives a handful of sub- 


n practice, you can write the "peek" 




outjne more efficiently by using In-line 


The direct comparison with Basic is Ihat the normal functions. 






as 1 have said earlier, keeping things 


LET . - b(4) - 6 .■ 2 "o^'ing P°'"' °' ='^"9^ '" '"acl™ code 




without some degree of effort, so (unctions 


Below Is a better example of how to 


n machine coae. ^^^^^ g^ gj^ ^ STFU. etc, are not 


se some of these routines alongside an 




equivalent Basic program (see also listing 


if youVe lucky enough to afford a Hewlitt , ^ limitations 
Pa<:''3rd!], canbeovarcome 
So our expression above would be j^^ ^^^^.^^^ ^^^. ^^^^^ NolSEqual. 


2). 
Next week we start lo look at ways ot 


using the Spectrum hardware from 

hotting up! ■ 


*""^" ^=- Graaie-srfian, LesSSThan. ZxAnd. ZxOr. 
oW(5i=c|<) ZxNal Zxin. ZfPeek. In each case (except 
° '''°^'" the last two), the routine operates on two 
3 (Slack) values supplied in the HL and DE register 




By Travo' Toms, author ot The Spa&Mn- 


PocKel Boon, published by Phipps Asaoci- 


+ pairs, leaving a "true" or "lalse" resull in 




giving a final result which will be stored in 






data area X using methods adopted last 












Each operator (eg, • or + in this case) 






operates on the top two stacked items lo 






give a resulting value on the top at the 


LD HL.a 




stack. II you've used Forth, you'll be very 


la i™«jii),HL 




familiar with this concept — In tact, one 


'" ""^uT ° LD°^ "^^'^^- "" 


Mlm heytuerO 


reason why Forth is so fast is because the 


concepts translate very readily into 


CALL AWArrSKEV wan lo. a 1.8V II 


machine code. 




,pul keyoMB inlo HL 


As a good guideline, try lo keep to a 






strict convention regarding the use ol 


» IF (char < 481 on (diar -. 58J T 




registers in your routines. Personally. 






when writing a "Basic translation" prog- 






ram 1 use the HL registers to hold the 






"latest result" of any expression, the DE 


JR riz.Liaa 




registers to hold array subscripts or 


LO HL.(WBf| 




second operand from an arithmetic opera- 
tion, and the stack lo hold the "latest 
result" when a nested expression is re- 


CALL GHEATEFWTHAN 


quired. 


JR NZ.UM 


,iump kmaiQ II Hue 


Once again, it is worth stressing that this 
is not necessarily the best way to write 


30 LETieBuli = iiwiin-la|-|0 


'""'*,B«cu,..rt,™.ll 


machine code, but it is safe and helps 




^itifUvtmo 


assure working code until you have built 






up enough confidence to spread your 


XOR A 


Han. carry lias 


So we can now translate the small 


MO HLol 


■MBVaate 


example above into machine code as 


IK)P OE 


■aeMREBULT.lOnHoQE 


follows: 


ADD HLD6 
40 GO TO 10 


■aadloialestmsull 


CAU. SETSITEM ,SM lasl «Bak 


JB LIO 












Lioq- LD K2 










LETl= LD (X)'.HL 


LD BCdeaWl 


^ i^'r"'^'" 


Since the MUL16 and DIV16 routines 


BET 


■relum lo Basic 


leave their result in HL you can see that 






the code reguired lo evaluate this type of 






expression is extremely compact. 






The equivalent ol Basic functions be- 







t5-21 DECEMBER 19B3 




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SPECTRUM 



Addr 


Hph 


Dp 


Operands 


Addr Hex 


Dp Operands 




FF5B 




EQUAL 




FAOO 


SELDEV t 




FF5B 




OND 




FAOO 


EOU 1601H 




FF59 


ED52 


SBC 


HL.DE 


FAOO 


PRlNTSNUMt 






21O000 


LD 


HL,0 




EQU lAlBH 




FF5E 




RET 


NZ 


FAOO 


AWAITSKEYi 




FF5F 


23 




HL 


FAOO 


eOU 15D4H 




FF60 


C9 


RET 




FAOO 


L£SS«THAN! 








NOT^IEaUflL. 




EQU OFFtBH 




FF61 














FFfa2 
FF6B 


ED52 
2B 


LD 
RET 


HL,DE 
Nz' 


FfiOO 


EOU OFFtAH 
MUL16! 
EOU 65000 




FFi.9 


C9 






FAOO 


ORG 64000 








BR EAT 


ERtTHAN: 


FAOO 


ENTRYtF'OINT: 










DE.HL 


FAOO 210O0O 


LD HL,0 




FFfiB 




LESS* THAN: 


FA03*220O00 


LD (RESULT) ,HL 








AND 




FflOt 






FF6C 






HL.DE 




LD A,l 




FF6E 


7C 






FAOe CDOlli 


CALL SELDEV 




FF6F 




RLA 




FAOB CDD415 


CALL AWAIT»KEY 








LD 


HL,0 


FAOE 6F 


LD L,A 








PO.LTB 


FAOF 260O 


LD H,0 




FF7t 


3F 






FA11«220000 


LD (CHfiR),HL 








LTBi 




FAI4 1130O0 


LD DE,4B 




FF77 


ED6A 


ADC 


HL,HL 


FA17 CDtBFF 


CALL LESSSTHAN 






C9 






FAIA 7D 


LD A,L 




FF7A 




ZXPEE 




FAIB B7 


OR A 






6E 


LD 


L, IHL) 


FftlC*2000 


JR NZ,LlO0 




FF7B 








FA1E»2A0000 


LD HL,(CHAR) 




FF7B 


2600 


LD 




FA21 113AO0 


LD DE,5H 




FF7e 
FF7E 


11 


RET 




FA21 CD6AFF 
Fft27 7D 


CALL GREATER*THAN 
LD A,L 








LD 




FA2B B7 












l| (C) 


FA29»2000 


JR NZ,L100 




FFa2 


1BF7 


ZXNOT 




FA2B*2A0000 
FA2E llOAOO 


LD HL, (RESULT) 
LD DE,10 








LD 




FA31 CDEBFD 


CALL MULJ6 












FA34 E5 


PUSH HL 




FFSi. 


210000 


LO 




FA35 AF 


XOR A 








RET 


NZ 


FA3i*2A0000 


LD HL.ICHAR) 












FA3'? 11300O 


LD DE,4a 




FFBB 


C9 








SBC HL,DE 








ZXAND 




FA3E 01 


POP DE 












FA3F 19 


ADD HL.DE 




FFBD 








FA40»220000 


LD (RESULT) ,HL 






67 


LD 






JR LIO 




FFBF 


7D 


LD 


A.L 


FA45 


LlOO: 












FA45 3E02 


LD A, 2 




FF91 


fcF 


LD 




FA47 CDOllt 


CALL SELDEV 




FF92 


C9 


RET 




FA4A<ED4B0000 LD 6C, (RESULT) 




FF93 


7C 


A,H 


FA4E CDIBIA 


CALL PRINT*NUM 








GR 


d' 


FA51 C9 






FF95 










CHAR: 




FF96 


7D 








DEFW 




FF97 


B3 


OR 


e' 


FA54 








6F 


LD 


L,0 


FA54 0000 


DEFW 


















Syrnb 








Symbols: 












SELDEV 1601 


PRINT* lAlB 




GREflTE FF6fl 


LESS*T FF(,B 


AWAITS 15D4 


LESS*T FF6B 






FF77 






CREATE FF6A 


MUL16 FDEB 










N FF7E 


ENTRY* FAOO 


LIO FA06 




ZXNOT FFB1 


ZXAND FFBC 


LI 00 FA45 


CHAR FA52 




ZXOR 


FF93 






RESULT FA54 






No e 


rorlsl 






No error (s) 







15-21 DECEMBER 1903 



COMMODORE 64 



Programming by angles 

Czes Kosniowski explains the use of trigonometry in 
programming 

Seldom can we direclly measure the 
heights of tall buildings, hills, trees, elc. 
One way lo find the height ol a building or 
tree Is to stand away from the object. Now 

and the highest point o( the object (using a 
clinometer, uvhich is just a glorilled protrac- 
tor), then measure the distance between 
you and the object. By drawing a scale 
drawing the height of the object can be 
readily estimated. See Fi< 



always practicable or ace 
scale drawings. An altern< 
to do it by trigonometry i 
modore 64. 



rate to produce 
live approach la 
5ing your Com- 




The trigonometry functions 

The three important trigonometric func- 
tions are SIN (sine function), COS (cosine 
function) and TAN (tangent lunction). They 

of a right-angled triangle. For ewemple, the 
triangle in Figure 4 is a right-angled 
triangle. The angle at the comer of the left 
is denoted by the symbol X. The three 
sides ol the triangle will be referred to as 
the side adjacent to X. the side opposite X, 
and the hypotenuse (the longest side). 



I the height of a mountain peak 
miles away and covered in clouds, 
ids would get in your *ay, and you 






lop. A scale drawing would provide a way 
of calculating the height of the mountain, 
(Figure 2). 




COSOff) = SOROIffl 
COSHST ' l/SQRia) 

costscf) = lis 



TANISO-) - 



Figure Z 

As a further example suppose .we 

wanted to find Ihe width of a large pond or _ _ 

lake (see Figure 3]. A scale drawing TMJisffi ^ sqh(3) 
drawn (rem the measurements mai"" 
could be produced and the required d 
tanee estimated. 




Figure 4 

If you know the angle X and one of the 
three lengths of a rtghi-angled tnangle 
then you can find the other two lengths 



e given by the lollow- 






ic8n|iC0S(X) 



the length of 

Figure 3 other two lengths . 

Here is a related example. A navigator is tng formulae, 

at a certain position A He is 150 km due ^ , tanixi 
west of city 8 and 188 km Irom city C. The 
angle between the two cities is 33 degrees 

measured from his position. How far aparl Another way of 

are the two cities? Again, a scale drawing nomelric function is by using a cin:le oi 

could provide the answer. radius t unrt. Measure out Ihe angle 

Although scale drawing will provide required as shown in Figure 5. The values 

answers to the problems mentioned above of the various trigonometric functions are 

they are rough and reatly. And It Is not indk^led. 

30 




Mathematically distances are measured 
horizontally from left to right and vertically 
upwards. This explains why, for Instance. 
In Figure 6 Cos(X) fias a negative value. 




RgureS 

You can obtain SIN. COS and TAN of 
angle X by typing Print Sin(X). etc, subsll- 
tuling the appropriate value o( X, The only 
possible problem is that Ihe Commodore 
64, like most microcomputers, expect 
angles in radians, not degrees. Fortunate- 
ly, degrees can be turned Info radians and 

First of all, what is a radian? Draw a 
circle of radius 1 unit. Measure along the 

which Is equal to the radius of the drde. 
The angle subtended by this arc 
radian. 1 radian is approximately 57°. See 




famous. It is defined to be the ratio of the 
circumference of a circle to its diameter. 
The (approximate) value of n is stored in 
your Commodore 64. Simply type Print n 



so there are £«rt radians in a complete 
circle. Since there are 360 degrees in 
complete circle we see that: 



The following program can be us( 
find lengths of right-angled tnangles. You 
need to input an angle and one dist£ ~ 



POPULAR COMPUTING WEEKLV 



COMMODORE 64 



respeciively. Asn(H) is thai angle whosa where C iE Ihe length o1 (he hypolerusa. 

sine is N; similarly AcslN) is Ihal angle Since our hypolenuse is ot Isnglli 1 we 

whose cosine is N. ijnloilunalely Ihe have: 

CDmmodore 64, in common wilh many i = ^.a -. a.a 
olher microcompule's, does nol conlain 



Inverse functions 

Suppose we Know Ihe lengths of the sidf 
' a right-angled triangle, can we dele 

le the various angles? The answer 

i. and we use the inverse tngonometr 
iundions to do this Given an angle Xtrtfi,, 
Tan(X) gives us a number, the langenl of can ce easily ootainea irom me »m lur i. 

denoted by Aln(N), Ihe arc tangent ol 
■ 3k at Ihe mangle in Figure 8. 




SlnceX=-^(n('B'A>weoh 



11 Tan(X) = B'A, thus X = Atn(BI 
can put in the appropriate values 
(pression and get your Com mod - 



trie Iundions SIN and 
verse Iundions denoted 

I and Acs (arc cosine) 



the Commodore C 

ol A then we could use Am since X = 

AInlB'Aj also. To find A we use Pyltiagor- 

Hecall the Itieorem of Pythagoras. In 
words Pythagoras' theorem slates Ihal Ihe 
square ol Ihe hypolenuse of a right-angled 
Is equal lo the sum ol the squares 
her two sides. In symlxils we have 



also, Asn(B) = X, and so we oDIaln 

ABNIBI = ATNiaSORd - B.a)t 

In a similar way we could prodi 
formula lor Acs(A), one such is 

ACSIAI = n2 - ArN(A(SQR(1 - A-A)) 

lid nolice Ihal AcsiA) - i 

lix H of the Commodore 64 User 

nclions which may be uselul 



IB REM PROGRAM FOR RIBHT-MNQLED 
-TRIANGLES 
20 PRINT CHR«fl47) " RIBHT-ftNSLED 

TRIANGLES" CHH«(17> 
30 PRINT "THIS PROGRflH ENABLES 
YOU TO FIND THE" 

40 PRINT "SIDES OF A RIGHT ANGLED 
TRIANGLE" 

50 PRINT "PRCDVIDED YOU KNOW ONE 
BIDE AND ANGLE." CHR*(17) 
ii0 PRINT " "7. 

70 PRINT ■' H y. 

3a PRINT " HYPDTENU8EW XDPPDSITE 



■JS PRINT ' 



WANGLE X 
####«■## " 
ADJACENT" CHR»( 



).ee REM INPUT DETAILS 

110 INPUT "ANGLE. IN DEGREES. " t > 

120 IF X'."B OR X.>-9B THEN PRINT 

"ERROR - NOT A TR I ANGLE " t GOTO 110 

13a PRINT CHR*(17> "WHICH SIDE DO 

VDU KNOW? 1 (OPPOSITE)" 

140 PRINT "2 (ADJACENT) OR 3 

(HYPOTENUSE) ." 

150 INPUT "TYPE 1. 2 DR 3 "iT 

l&a IF Td OR T>3 OR TOINTd) 

ThffiN 15B 

■1 DECEMBEfl 19B3 



170 PRINT CHR»<17) "TYPE IN THE 

LENGTH OF THIS SIDE." 

IBS INPUT "LENGTH "tL 

190 IF L<-a THEN PRINT "FUNNY - 

TRY rtGAlN"tGPTO 180 

2Ba REM CONVERT TO RADIANS 

210 X-X/1QI2 

220 REM THE SPLIT OFF 

230 ON T SOSUB 300.350.400 

240 PRINT CHR»(17) " THAT'S IT - 

ANOTHER GO Y OR N7" 

2SB GET G*iIF G«<>"Y" AND E*<.>"N" 

THEN 250 

268 IF Q*-"Y" THEN RUN 

270 PRINT CHR»(147> "BYE FOR NOW." 

(END 

300 REM OPPOSITE SIDE KNOWN 

310 PRINT CHR»(17> "ADJACENT SIDEi " 

L/TAN(X) 

320 PRINT " HYPDTENUBEi" L/SIN(X) 

330 RETURN 

530 REM ADJACENT SIDE KNOWN 

360 PRINT CHR«(17) "OPPOSITE SIDEi " 

TAN(X)#L 

370 PRINT " HYPOTENUSEl" L/COS()() 

380 RETURN 

400 REM HYPOTENUSE KNOWN 

410 PRINT CHR»(17) "OPPOS.ITE SIDEi" 

SIN(X)»L 

420 PRINT "ADJACENT SIDEi" L*COS(X) 

430 RETURN 



REVIEWS 



An easy life for some 

Keith and Steven Brain take a look at programming aids 
for the Dragon 32 



to stick to Basic raider than delve Into 
macriine code. 11 is available on disc or as 
an Eprom (wlltiln Delta or separate] and It 
adds over 50 new commands 10 Basic. 
Altt^ough programs incorporallng the new 
commands will only run t( Toolkit is pre- 
sent, I he program also has some tirsl- 
class editing commands which can be 
used to edit any program. 
The lull screen editor Is a twin cursor 



a keyboard beep and Break OniBraak Oft 
enables/disables the break key. 

Echo t-y.i copies lines j lo / from ^ 
downwards and Prune removes every- 
thing after a Flem statement. Vars prints 
Ihe active variable in a orogram. Pause 
wails (or a specified number o1 mill- 
seconds and Hang waits lor a key to be 
pressed. A number of commands are 
provided to control low-res graphics. The 
comprehensive error handling commands 
{Cri. Err, Error n, Error Goto n, Error OH, 
Resume, Resume Neit, and flesume 
Galon) can be used lo prevent your 
program Ircim stopping if there is an error 

The Resume commands are important, 




lUlOK 



Ihe full screen editor 
le Dragon's standard 



editing faciiiiies (s 
of new commands lo rememPer). or you 
can recopy a whole line. To save Ihe 
problem ol text scrolling off the top ol Ihe 
screen, you can move tew to one of two 
other tea screens, and also swap text 

Extensive search and replace facilities 
are included and Plan gives you total 
control over output lo a printer control ling 
factors such as paging, column length, 
margin, etc Extra cassette handling com- 
mands are Cdir (gives a directory of a 
tape) and Cappand (appends from tape). 

Inkey is like InkeyS, but gives Ihe Ascii 
value of a key pressed, while KeyS ana 
Key are like InkeyS and Inkey. but with 
buin-in auto-repeat. Inp n,A$ gives you a 
controllable length tor an Input, so that you 
can prevent an ignorant (or malicious) user 
enienng an Illegally long string. Deek and 
Doke Peek and Poke two hyies al a time 
with a 1 6-bil number. Beep On/ Off controls 



1 lately 



prog- 



with your program (uniiKe me error i 
mands in DragonOos). Old attempt 
rescue a crashed program You 
allowed to Goto and Gosub line num 

ram the keys /l-Hwiih up to 23 
including Enter. For example. It you use: 

pnOGA "PAGE' 1- CHRSIIS) + 'BEEP" t CHRS 
(131 • ■■HANG'- t CHRI(I3J t "RUN ' CHRSIISI 

then when you press Shift and A, it will 
Page your program. Beep. Hang and then 

Even after all that description we have 
still lell out some very useful features, so 
you can pn:>bably understand why we 
believe the Premier Toolkit is outstanding 
value al £29.95. 

Encoder 09 (Premier) Is a monitor, 
assembler, and disassembler for the Dra- 
gon which comes on cassette, disc (Delia), 
or Eprom (available as an option on Ihe 
Delta Dos cartndgei. The comprehensive 

details ol Ihe 6609 registers, instruction 
sets and different types ol addressing, as 
well as the operation of the syslem 
The program slarls up in the monitor 



printer, or disc. There are 19 error mas 
sages to help sort out any problems. 

Encoder 09 costs E29,95 on lape 
E34.95 on Eprom as a Delta addition, anc 
C39.95 on cartridge We found il easy tc 

code programming, then this is a sound 
investment. 

Memory Module (Moray Microsystems) 
is a low power Cmos static Ram memory 
module running off Ni-Cads which 
inckle charged when the computer is or 
can be used lo provide instant meriwry 
back-up in case of a syslem crast 
provide a temporary, reusable, "cartric 
lacilily. The unit is larger than a noi 
cadridge arvj, lo prevent it fiopping ai 
irt the expansion port, there are small 
plastic feet underneath Ihe case. Before 
turning Ihe Dragon off, you must remem- 
ber lo turn the memory prelection switch 
on and, before you recover or store prog- 
rams, you must put the memory prelection 



1 1 is easy to store and retrieve a program 

could pul this routine al the end ol a [ 
program and instead ol Csavng Ihe latest 
copy ol your program every half an ho 
case the gremlins get loose in the n 
supply), you could dump ii Into the me 



Them 







ing and tabulation and a full complement ol 
pseudo -opcodes. 

s assembly language 
wilhrn Basic programs by e ' 



f=lam conliguralior 

example, will hold 4K tor 83 days using 
ultra low power Cmos (C42) or 16,6 days 
using lower power Cmos (E39). This pro- 

developmenl (especially 
if you don't 

ighl want to change 
e cartridge contents at regular intervals. 
The standard Dragon 32 interface is of 
B parallel Centronics type, although th 
iw Dragon 64 also has a serial RS232 
pod. Many other machines have RS23? 
' " is facility allows you 



programs are provided, Ihe 
interface test and Ihe seco 
10 transmit the graphics sc 
Dragon to another (as we 

l=OPUUR COMPUTING WEEKLV 



REVIEWS 






I any si 



a I prinler on 
the Dragon, communicale Dslween your 
Dragon and any olhei machine with an 
RSE3E inierlacB, and evenlually to com- 
municale llHough a modem (which is 
cutrently under development] to llie whole 
world, although of course you still need to 
wile the soflware to control i|i This is 
anollier raihet specialised product which 



iver of your Dragon into 
applications 
Last, but not least, there are the lighl- 
pens which plug difeclly into the joysllcti 
ports of the Dragon and allow you lo 
control the execution of your programs 
wiihout touching a My. The Trojan Ughl- 
pen (Trojan Products) is a relatively simple 
dei^ce supplied with a program on casset- 
te and a combinalron of instructions 
printed on the cassette insert and incorpo- 
rated into the program. The main menu 
allows you to select options to run through 
« a simple histogram 
of light level, ptsy k 




Jrily. 

m doubl invaluable lo them. The interface 
has already been used lo connect the 
Dragon to a number of pieces D( special- 
ised scientific equipment. 

In addition to serial and parallel ports, it 
is also useful to have straightforward input 
and output connections lor control applica- 
tions. Dragon Interface (Moray Micro- 
systems) is an input'oulpul module which 
allows \^ie Dragon cartridge pod to be 
used as 3 4 or 8 input port (opto-isolated) 
with up lo 8 relay output ports Once the 
module has been configured, inputs are 
easily ready by Peeking location 4915S 
and relays ope rated.' re leased by Poking 
appropiiale values lo Wf 53. 

The module will accept do inputs from 
+3 to +15 volts and the output channels 
will switch up to 220 volts at 0.5 amps. 
Data at the input channels is indicated by 



use the Iteyboard as well, which rather de- 
feats the otjjecl of using a lightpen! 

Ms value seems rather limited, but itis 
relatively cheap at £10. 

The Dalapen Lightpen (Datapen Mic- 
rolechnology) is supplied with comprehen- 

programs. It differs from all other light pens 
available for the Dragon in that il is a far 
more sophisticated (and rather more ex- 
pensive at Z25) beast. Important unusual 
features are a button mounted on the pen 
itself, which controls operation, and an led 



:h indic; 



ita caplun 



The pen is 

because of its larger size and bE 
end is flattened and covered wil 
rubber II also seemed quite ins 
changes in ambient light. 

The first program provided il 
duct ion which a 









an aged to per- 



..,.. ..e pen works, pri 
IS flowchart, or find an X, 
in. The second program 
ch you can draw directly o 




the screen using any Pmode. Four options 
can be selected with the pen {Draw, Erase 
line. Blank Move and Pain!) and, by aj 
using the keyboard, you car save lo ta[ 
draw a circle, and change the accuracy 
factor and measuremeni bars. This | 
ram uses a much faster screen si 
(which can easily be modified) ai 
clearly demonstrates the superiority c 
Dalapen. 

The Shape Create program is 
useful, as it allows you to produce designs 
directly on a screen matrix and then i 
these in a "library" In memory or on I 
and use them later. The Create n 
sprites oplion allows you lo design sea 
up sprites on the screen, while a noi 

control by ihe lightpen. If you select the 
CfieateO'-aiw'ig mode, then you canp" ' 
sprite from Ihe library you created an . 
It at any screen position at any of lour 
90-degree angles. 

Although we have tended to be rather 
cynical about the value of light pens In 
past, the Datapen has transformed 
views and is no doubt Ihe best buy for 

Adding on all the lacilities of all I 
products at the same time would certainly 
produce one hell of a machine, but wi" 
those "bolt-on-goodies" we are sure 
you would also need some "go-faster" 
sihpes as well, ~ 



Pusaiuic a|.pin.aui,iia ui uun Uiiii o.c 
many and varied (we hope to report 
further on this in the near future), for 
example, you could easily control your 
model railway (or robot?). Another obvious 
application is to build a sophisticated 
intelligent burglar alarm system which can 
tell the difference between your cat sitting 



The price depends on the speciflcatioi 
■ ■ " ■ n a flal charge of £20 for 
r B inputs and then E3 p- 
I that a full specification 
module 



inputs or C28 
relay output 1 
input'8 outpL 






'aiiabie (f 



id E40) 



ISO being made 
It you can really 

h sating, greenhouse etc, This unit certain - 

15-31 DECEMBER 1983 



208 Croydon Road 

Anerly 

Lnndon SE20 7YX 

17 Kiriiton Place 
Elgin IV30 3JR 



Ligtitpert 

"Tape. tVaries ac 
















.O" 



o- 



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POPULAR COMPUTING WEEKLV 



'"SlmB/noneP"'!"?'?' 



.SoflwaneSIUDIOS 



Invaders format Asteroids format 
Defender format & Beserh format 



\TurboSplderTanH^ 
3 lot-Halloween- 
Attach of the > 
Mutant HambumerA 
Cyborg-Reflectron- 
SplotandQBIx 



MBrketedexcluslvelybyOulcksllvB Name 



Metsor StDrm (1 6K Speclnjm) 
I enclosB cheque/P.O for 

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My Game Loids Club 



Clieqiiss payaeie 10 Oulckslh 
Sand to SoHwars Stmllo, 
QukskallvB Mall Order. 
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WImbgma, DoiWl 8H2I 1^1^ 
Telephonot (020?) 891744 - 



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BBC & EDUCATION 



To the letter 

Ian and Oamlan Inger present Word Search for the 32K BBC 



, ...^ K-s- eOucallonal lype, for 

I use with 3 group ol pupils rather than pupils are pr 

me parson alone The leacher has id write coloured Oloc' 

I short passage (20 lines ot 31 characters) punctuation m 



to the screen for the pupils. 

At tandom intereals, all occurrenci 
the guess letter are filled in on the sci 
At 15 guess Inten/als, the pupils are in 
to write out a two-line message, si 
what they think the passage is about. 

The program is designed lo encourage 
group discussion about the positioning of 
letters and the Irequency of certain letters 






lOREM Won 
20REM Bv . 
30REM <c) 
40REM 
SOREM 
iiitiPIODE? 

anpRDCteaci 

^OPRQCentHi 
lOOPRDCoupll.ii 
llOPROCpunc 
120PR0CmDVS 
1 30PR0CguBBtt 
140PR0Cch»ck 

150R=RND<7) 5 IF ^"=3 AND (fl<13t OR 
»)-I39) THEN PROCluck 
160GDTD 120 
I70END 

IHODEFPRQCinit 
190T=0 
200Q«0 

210VDU23!8202s0!0!0! 
220DIM A»(31,20) 
230DIM BK31.20) 
240D1M T«(301 
250«K,'?"r' 
260tK. lOGLDlMRUNlM 

ZTOISt^CHRtaSO) 

2B0a4=CHR» 12351 

290R»=CHR»tl29) - . 

300C»=CHRe<I34) 

310XlV.=0!Vr/.-0 

320ENDFR0C 

330DEFPRaCtBac:her ^instructi on 

340CLB 

350PRINT"InBtructions to ttie tesc. 

360PRINT 

570PRINT"Ydu should type the test 
passags in CAPITAL LETTERS onlv 

3aOPRINT"I-f vou make a mistatie. 
-eas the Delate l-.ev to erase it-" 

390PRII^T"The prooram will accept 
20 lines oi 31 characters." 
4iTOPRlhlT"l 



. the "iS«! 
autpn 



;all\ 






410PRINT"I 
omo 1 et 6 , 1 1 
420PRINT" 



111° 



430REPEfiT:PRINTTAB'(0.23) "PRESS SPACE 
BAR rO CONTINUE"!UNTIL GET 
440E^DPROC 

450DEFPR0CDupl I .instruct ion 
46i>CLB 
*70ifFK15, 1 



4BrjFRINT" 
490PRINT 
SOOPftINT" 



5ibPRlNT"Vou 1 
screen. This i^ 

520PRmT"The 

unve the '£" ar^ 
arrow keys i-fyni 

530PRINT"I-f v 
the C "ill -"P-e 
" 540PRINT"I-f V 
E will stay whe 

550PR1NT" 



Jill 



r guess 



illit J 



i le 



"5loREPEflTTpRlNTTAB(0.231 "PRESS SPACE 
BAR TO CDNTINUE":UNTIL GET 

5S0PRlNT"SonietimeB. vou will ce ^^'•'"^ 
to write a short message saying what 

end. press red key 9 and all ai your 

messages will be shown." 

590PRINT 

tO0PBlNT"The total time taken for 



620PR1NT"Vpu mav presQ 'Return" 
at anv time to see the Inatruccion^. 

fc30REPEAT! PRINTTAB 10. 23) "PRESS 
SPfti:E BAR TO CDNTINUE":UNTIL BET 

640TiriE=0 

650ENDPROC 

b 60D EF PR OC en t B r 

h70CLS 

faBOFOR V=0 TQ 20 

690PRlNTTOB(i:i.Y) iG«: 

7O0PRlNTTAB(35.Y) :V+l; 

710NEX'r 

720PRINTTAe (0.21)! R»: PftlNTTAS 

'°730PRINTTflB(i;21)"USE CAPITAL 

740PRINTTfiB( 1.221 "PRESS 'DELETE' 
IF you MAKE A MISTAKE" 

750X=0!Y='^ 

74.0REPEAT 

■»70PRINTTAB(X+2.Y) iS« 

7eOA«(X.Y)=GET« 

790AS=ASC(A»<X.Y) ) 

eOOIF AS=13 AND X<31 THEN REPEAT: 
PRIt>JTTflB<X->-2.V) ;" ■■: A« <X . Y)-" "'''°''"^;' 



POPULAR COMPUTING W 



J. 



S=sr The Official 




OG> 





The popular arcade 
game for the DRAGON 32.^ 



*^ 



V 



SAFELY MANOEUVRE THE FROG TO 
ITS HOME WITHIN THE TIME GIVEN. . 
CROSS THE HIGHWAY WITHOUT 
GEHING RUN OVER AND CROSS 
THE RIVER WITHOUT FALLING IN. 
AVOID TRAFFIC. SNAKES, CROCODILES 
AND DIVING TURTLES. 

FOR 1 TO 2 PLAYERS. JOYSTICKS OPTIONAL 

On Cassette £8 ea«* < - » 



M^lOPiM; 






1 


m 








X "- 


M* 


9^ "^tI 






\ 1 " 








^tj 




wmM 



Once you've got to 
grips with the Rocic 
'n' Roll game, flip- 
over and get your 
teeth into Dracuia. 

New K-tel Doublesiders are great fun 
and great value which ever way round 
you look at them. 

For only £6.95 you don't just get one 
top quality computer game, you get two. 

When you've finished playing one 
side simply flip it over [just like a music 
cassette) and move off on a second totally 
different, equally gripping game. 

Take your choice. Already there 
are five Doublesiders to choose 

f ^Il'a Only Rock 'n' Roll Can you become a supcisui' A 
I ~ Rnckn'Rollidol..,Oia[cyQujuscaiiothcihasljCTn? 

Lire. Bui can ymi slay Ihc cuurat, siand [he 

St? Can you cflpiutc the hcaits and walleisol the public 



from — three suitable for the ZX 

Spectrum and two for the Commodore 

Vic 20 — and there are more to come. 

So hurry to the shops now and see for 

yourself how K-tel Doublesiders really 

do give you twice the fun with two on one. 



^DDUBLESIDERS 





■i 


i|^H 


11 


^m 




■■I 




■ 






S 




u 


■■? 




1 


n 


1 


^ 















Twice the fun with two on one. 



"ADVENTURES InV 

AVAILABLE FROM W.H. SMI iTl 

AND ALL LEADING (COI 



TRANSYLVANIA; 







RICHARD SHEPfHEF 



DEALERS - GENEROUS DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE CONIWCT 



RICHARD^SHEPHERD -o.J 

RING [06 

SOFTWARE ^°""'"i 



.GINATION" 



MITH, JOHN MENZIES, BOOTS'' 

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or 


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Explore c 


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the Pago 
spilt sere 
adventur 


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et 


A spectacular 
graphic and te 
D bra in cease yc 



of the V ..,..,..^ 

tical adventure Conqui 
summit of the worlds 



RICHARI>SHEP'HERD 
SOFTWARE 



AUTOMATA U.K. LTD, the creators of J 



~4S;- PRESENT THE COMPUTER 

*^^ ENTERTAINMENT WHERE 

i DREAMS COME TRUE! 



41 







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^FAT( 




STARRING GROUCHCthePIMAN^^ 

& A dkVkVI OF HOLLYWOOD STARS! 




Esnfil 



MORRIS 



More than fun and games! 



The ever-popular Mr. Men help prepare 
young children for reading wilh four 
simple and absorbing games designed 
to exerciseessentialskillsas well as entertain. 

Aneasy-to-use, colour-coded key guide 
is included wilh an illustrated introductory 
jO^'^pv.x — , book,featuringtheMr. 
^%J(^/ •• \ Men. For ages 4 to 8 
_n / •-/ I years. Available now on 
^r^ -is "^1 cassette for the BBC B 
* / (Spectrum 48K and 

Electron versions 
coming shortly) £8.95 




I- L. Ll_l.\_ L. Ll_l.\— V— I. 



H' 



r 



lingers. 

In Sum Vaders alien robots invade the 
earth. Only quick thinking and last reactions 
can prevent them. Several levels of difficulty 
and atwo- player game with a handicap 
option makeSum Vaders equally testing for 
all family members, from 8 years to adult. 

Robot Tables challenges the young 
player to make a series of perfect robots. 

Knowing your multiplication 

tables is the key to controlling the ^^^" 
robot-making machine. With a 
learningmodeandatesting _ 

mode, Robot Tables is a fun way bA^fa 




for early learners, 
and more ad- 
vanced children, 
to master an 
important and 
often neglected 

skill, 

Available now on cassette for the 
Spectrum 48K and Commodore 64 (BBC B 
and Electron versions coming shortly). £6.95 

OlSAR 
THECAT 

Meet Caesar, a cheeky young cat on 
duty in a well-stocked larder He's 
kept busy chasing a gang of hungry 
mice eating thefamily'sfood. Playing against 
theclock, you guideCaesar along crowded 
shelves to pounce on the mice, 

A fast, colourful, all-action, arcade-style 
game with catchy music and a best-score 
record. Challenging for high-scoring arcade 
addicts as well as great fun to play for the 
novice. 

Available on cassette forthe 
lommodore 64^-^ £8.95 




Puces incluOe VAT and post and pacl<aging. 
MIRRORSOFT programs are available tiom selei 
branches olWH Smrlh and Bools. and other 
leading software stockists 
Trade enquiries welcoive: phone 01-822 35S0 



SOFTWARE FOR ALL THE FAMILY 




Interface: ' lor Spectrum 

■ 1 k on board memory * own 
rea: edge connector - tor 
primers etc " compatible with 
ALL slandard joysticks 
Joystick: * self centring 

■ 8 directional microswilched 
action • 2 independent fire 
buttons Tape: ' easy to use 
program, the interface 
WORKS ON ALL SOFTWARE 

■ keeps a record of all your 
games - so you only need to 
tell if about each game once! 



More 

fun & games from your 

Spectrum 

with the intelligent 

interface+program+ioystick 

and for only OQ/I Of\ 




Joyslick Inlerlace and Tape al C34,9{0 - 
- Joyslick only al E7 9CO Fc Speclmm 
enclose cheque'poslai ordei " inr c 
Cambndge Compuling 



i 



IflSEiil 




uniinwiiE mffiW DIMEHS 



t'.**l.*«*«-"" ' U ■u|»l^ 




BBC & EDUCATION 



s&t:l 



giOIF flB=127 THEN F 



! IF X<0 THEN 



S20PRlNTTAB<X+2.Y)tfi*(X,Vl 

S30IP fl9<>i27 THEN X-X+l 

S401F X"32 THEN PRINTTfiBd 
!X=0:Y=V"-1 

BS0UNTILY=21 

B60»FX15.1 

S70ENDPROC 

BBODEFPRDCpunc 

B90CLS 

900FOR V=0 TO 20 

9 1 OPRI NTTAB { . V 1 s C« ! 

920NEXT 

930F0R V=0 TO 20 

9AOF0R X=0 TO 31 

9S01F flSC(A«(X.V) XaS THEt 
|i»lX.V 



>-t5 THEN B«0 



960IF ASC(fl«(> 
970PRINTTflB<K-t-2.V) !B«tX,V) 
9B0NEXT 
090NEXT 

1 OOOENDPROC 

lOlODEFPRDCmove 

1020«FX15. ! 

1030«FX4. 1 

!040PRINTTflB(X17.+2.Yl/.) i "€ 

1 050A=6ET 

1060IF A=13 THEN PBOCinstructn 

lOTOIF A=33 THEN PROCliat 

lOSOPRINTTAB ( X r/.+2. Yir-l ! B«< X IV. 

lfj90IF A=49 THEN PROCliat 

IIOOIF fl-136 THEN XlX=Xr/.-l 
lllOIF A=.137 THEN XIV.-X IX+L 
1120IF A=13B THEN Vr/.=Y1X*1 
U30IF fl=139 THEN YlX=Yl!'.-i 
1140IF XtX<0 THEN Xiy.=31 : Vr/.=Y 
1J50IF X1X>31 THEN X17.-0tYlX=¥ 
1160IF Y1X<0 THEN Y1X=0 
1170IF Yir,>20 THEN V1X=20 
n80PRINTTABaiX+2.VlX>iB»(XlX 
1 1 90ENDPRac 
1 200DEFPROCquess 
!210T=T+liIF T/15=INT(T/1S) 
THEN PROCtele 



124':iPRINTTAB(Xir.*2.Yr/.) :5* 

I250ENDPR0C 

12tOENDPRDC 

1270DEFPRaCt:heck 

12aOIF A>135 AND 0<140 THEN ENDPROC 

1290 IF fl-13 THEN ENDPROC 

L30OIF 6*<>A»(XIX.Y17.> THEN 
PRINTTAB(0.23)"WR0N5":F0R H=20 TO 
STEP -1: SOUND 1 
.-Ifi.H. 1[ NEXT: ENDPROC 



1j2CiX1X= 



V1V,)=G« 
.■•-l! IF 



XIV.' 



THEN vr/.=0 
<:-B« THEN 1320 



1330IF B*(Xi; 

I340ENDPR0C 

135DDEFPR0C1UCI- 

1360F0R XV.=0 TO 31 

17.70F0R YX=Ci TO 20 

13801F fi»(XX.¥X)=S» THEN PRINTTAB 

15-21 DECEMBER 1983 



lxy.+2.Y' 
1390NEXT 
1400NEXT 
1410ENDPBDC 
1420DEFPR0Ctele 
1430CLS 
1440PRINT"What do s 

1450PRINT"TvDe vour 

1460PR INT "Press Re( 



1500FDR Y=0 TO 20 

1510PRINTTAB(0,Y) sC* 

1520NEXT 

1S30F0R XX=0 TO 31 

1540F0R YX=0 TO 20 

1 530PR INTTAB ( XX*2 , YX ) : B« < X'/.. VX* 

1560NEXT 

1570NEXT 

ISaOENDPROC 

1590DEFPR0Cinstructlons 

IfeOOCLS 

1 6 1 OPR 1 NTCHR» 1 4 1 + " 1 NSTBUCT I ONS " 

1620PRINTCHR«141-f' INSTRUCTIONS" 

lfc30PRINT: PRINT! PRINT 

!fe40PRINT"The ' £' will move to t 



1650PRINT"If 



: want 1 






I67i>PRlNT"When 


you 


have 


finiahc 


whale storv, press 


iCHR* 




kev "" 








1680PRINT"ThiB 








messciges" 








1690PRINT!PRIN 














else which vou do 














I7I.0REPEAT 








1720PRINTTAB!0 


2i 




TO CONTINUE" 








1730UNTIL EE"^ 








1740CLS 








1750«FX15, 1 








174.0F0R X=0 TO 








1770F0R Y=i:> TD 








17B0PRINTTAEK0 




C» 




1790PRINTTABCX 


-■^. 






IBOONEXT 








IBIONEXT 








1820ENDPR0C 








1B30DEFPR0CHS 








1B40CLS 








IBSOPBtNT 








laiOPB INT "Your 


QL 




were:-" 


1B70F0R U=n TC 









ie90PRINTT»(L) 








1 890NEXT 








19O0PRINT"Tiine 




ken "! 




6000)M0D 60: " n 








1910END 










liVJMNJ.^I'riVTl 



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The Working Spectrur 
A library of procticol 
subroutines and 
programs by 
David Lawrence, 



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/^plication* 

David Laine explains a 

collection of procticol 

mochine code routines. 







POPULAHCOMPUTINCJ WEEKLY 



OPEN FORUM 



Open Forum is for you to publish your programs and Ideas. Take care 
thai the listings you send in are all bug-free. Your documentation 
should start with a general description o) the program and what It does 
and then give some detail of bow the program Is constructed. We will 
pay the Program of the Week double our new fee of £6 for each program 
published. 



Bug Fever 



II Spectrum 



^^ game (s lo catch as many insects wiin ihe 
frog's slicky tongue as possible You have 

'■ — 60 seconds in which to do this, four 
additional seconds are taken away II you 

a lily lump into Ihs pond. Scores vary cfepending 



dragonflies, butlerflies. i 



— Ship right 

— Jump letl 

— Jump right 



) type c 






i OnTH iij 17j iT, 35,37^ *a^ 116, 
53 . 96, ISE -S^ B . 16.. 32^ 132 ,2*S,9B . 1 
56',6B..*ejiS.,7,B,9,S^4.., iee(,lBlj.23 



4-., 2 , 24. J 32 > 64. , 178 , eS , 64. , Sa , 



i , B , 6 ,192, 62 , ei , ass , bs , aa.a* 12 7 

1 .13,1. 127.0, 0,3,14. J 355, 2BB,£B5, 
4,3,0' 

a i>nTR a4is.0,isa,i2s 
,0,0,0 ~ ~ "■" ""' ""' 



. 12S,af 24. 



f,Kr.iK,«....-.=, 160' lasi! 130 i IBS'! i^e.. 
254\i24..iS*,5S,«e,5e,se, lecsa^s 

5T6B,B3.BB,6B,6,e,34.,34.,34.,54.,|d. 

'|-i?!=!''!^l:"*4l*i^J^S;§;S^i::? 

ia :, ass, 255, as5, iia , 192, ©, 15, 0, i , 

4. BCSTDRE ; FOR q=a TO 1B7 ST 

sp s- FOR i-=ia TD 7: neno a: poke 

U3R •■D--*9*r.^. NEXT ,- . NEXT q 
la DRTfl BIN 1B1BO10 

liji.BiN ai0i0iei,BiN BL_ 

©0101011 -BIN iaaiBlll,BIN 10001 
Hi. BIN Billlill,BIN S11001O1,BI 
N 01101010, BXH i01Biai3-BIN 1101 

3100, 6XN iioiaie>0..BiM 11101001, B 

^''li^D^B^Bir 1010010, BIN 01O1O1 

01. BIN 0iai0i0i..BiN oBigipijigji:;** 

.aaiaiBii .SIN laoieiii .bin laooi 

111 EIN 01111111.BIN 01100101, BI 
N 0ilOiei0.BIN 1010101a, 6IN 1101 
Sl00,BlN 11010100, BIN 11101001. B 
IN 1110B01, 2S5 

aa OFITt^ 14.J 17, 17,: 
63.9B.152,B.. ~ " 
900 BORDER I 



... FDR n = l 
PflRER 1, . 



--.'1-2,1 
3, IB, 32, 132,24.8 
j: PRPER S: BRIGH 
.'cils'7 FDR f>-0 TCI 10 PRINT 
'-, .a: PRPER S, , ; NEXT 1 

To' 21: PRINT fl' - ~- 

oI'l^TNK -'■ FOR r=0 TO se STEP 1 
5*®FOR q=0*RND.4. TO SBS STEP 16^ 

PLOT q/r: DRAW 2,2: DRflU 2 , -1 : 
MEXT q: NEXT r ^ . r. r ^ -B 

Sia INK 1: PHPBR 4: PRINT gT 17 

Sis PRINT RT IS, 3;" 

914. PRINT RT a9,.3.:"^ 

9JS INK 0. PAPER 4-; Pt-OT 35,20; 

aiS FDR n=*=„Tg 120 STEP 3 ■ . -"f-g 



4.;0,INT (RND»B1; N 

0: FOR n=0 TO 15-- 

19, Ij INK 3; PRPEK 
3; INK 6, PAPER ■ - 
INK ~ ' 



PRPER ^i^'S 



*^Flf IS, as: INK 

920 RESTORfe 20: I 

930 FOB q = l TO STEP - ■ 1 ■ _P1-DI 



224., 175 
940 dOeR 

5.3' 



, , , , . . INK 3; r 

IK 3.0,12: NEJCT ^ 
,0tRND*20) : NEXT C 



1O10 PAPER B: 



1020 LET .>l-aS; 

1021 PRINT RT ; 






■>3) STEP -1: INK 0*I7 RN 

BRIGHT J. PRINT «T n,u; 

■..■■■R-r r> + i,y ,'■*■■ ^RT n +2,y.; ir'; RT 

n*3 y ■■ GO SUB 605S 

S03B NEXT n 
5035 PRINT RT n* 

■■ - :rt n t3,y.; " 
5B4.e FOR-p=y TO 



■• ; RT i 



.„ .-r.^ ,P-+3i INK 0:-'E-- 

5052 IF (SCREEN* i'^'P*'^2.<> 
hS lNKEV*="e- THEN ^glMT RT n 



PRINT R 



J,-:rt n-l,yt4-; ■■"'•; RT n-* 

to SUB eesa 
rQsa NEXT n _^ y+a." ■ 
^'jti," ".RT n-2,y i4; "' ■■ 
^090 LET y=y+4.: PRINT RT 

S09E feEP ■e>3.,-3a: p|EP 
5B96 IP y >=29 THEN LET t, 
-3: PRINT nT_5-y, 125^^' 



ST°T-li*6Ng;20?.lNT (RNt>*l=04. NE 
'^T n- GO SUB ease, for h-J-b to a 
a PRINT AT q.ae; PRPER J; 
f' GO SUB 9120- C6 SUB^BOSO: NEXT 



SUB 
. tu rn" 

lie REM aaa 

n + l,y ;■■»■•; RT n t-a . 
60 sue 60S0 



S135 PRINT I 



n*-l,y 



. RT n +2 , ' 



STEP 



514-S FOR E=y 

5150 PRINT RT n,p;"3rc - -. CO sue 

60SO: POKE USR ■■ "" +*,4. 
5I5B IF INKEYa="0" THEN BEEP ,01 
.B: POKE USR ■■i"*4.,255 
3157 IF (SCREEN* fn.p-l 
HD INKEV» = -'0'* THEN POKE _. 
4,255^ FOR r=5 TD 1 STEP 
P .01,-,-: NEXT r: PRINT RT 



USR 



^EE 






161 LET ti 



OPEN FORUM 



-s,u 



bo SUB 5IBS9 



siis prjnt'pit n-4.,y-+;;; ■■;BT n - j 
si9©'let' y=y—»-: 'print ATT Xjy;"fc" 

S1B5 BEEP .Si, -Se: BEEP .Bl, -iS 



SI9B 



CD : 



LET x=16; LI 

ssae RETURN 

5380 REM OB 
-| LET 



FOR S=J-6 TO IB 
1-mPER 1 ; ■' •■ : Gi 
Sye 6B5B r NEXT 1 : 



■ INT 



INT 



I LET a» = ' 



"let d 1=0: LET 

^33S IF bl=2 THEW LET 

LET ci=-l: 

T ^iri=ae3 

LiT^d=l: LET 
C1=E0 



LET b' 
t3 TMEH t.Er a» = ' 



1 GO sus ease 



.^2.. INK 7; "SCORE: 



■_ET 2=3: BEEP 
6330 IF TNKEY* 



! LET b=t 

sees BEEP ■ £ie2 , 
=ia7e BETURN 
saee if xnkevs. 

9015 PRINT AT J 
soae' PRINT RT 4 

£5 see- 

904-0 PRINT RT B, 



I SUB 5130 



SEEP .01.. I 



■■-•■ THEW ED TO e 
la; ■'SCORING",: RT 
3; •■*«- DRfiGONFLI 
3; "ai EUTTERFLI 
3; ■■■^». FLIES 



S0: 



=1 TO lO: PRINT RT . 



NT HT 21, SB; PBPER ■ 

-: PRINT RT ,*,y; '■ 

0: LET 2=1B: LET X — 



3110 INK 7: 



PRINT RT 16,1 



GO 5UB 50 



10 FOR I « 1 TO 1024 

20 B = PEEK{Y + 32768) 

30 POKE 5120 + X,B 

40 POKE 5121 + X,B 

50 X = X + 2:Y = Y + 1 

60 NEXT I 

70 PRINT CHRS (147) 

80 POKE 36867,155 

90 POKE 36869,253 



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This program should help lo 
in'eaturesof 



ha Btomlo group 



Program rralsB At eiomoni To ratumlha copy keys back lo their copy 

AakslwEumani C Attxnic numbei futictkin type: 245 ■FX4. 



60 INPUT B* 

70i;EftD Ait,l:,D,E*,FJ,H, I ,G 

80IF H*="Z" THEN 260 

90 IF B*=rt3 THEN 110 
1i:ju]l-- BI-.VAf THEN 70 
I li>r-KIt-IT'L-.LEMENT "; At 
r,:"F-i.iMr'flTOMic number "jC 

l-.;OF-hlNr"fiTaMIC WEIGHT "|D 

140PR1NT' -"What is "iA*s"'5 symbol " ( 

1?0INPUT J*!lF JfOE* THEN PRIiv(T,"WRONG. ELEMENT "iP,*i"'S SYMBOL 

IS "iE^FiELSE PR TNT"CORRECT" 
160PR1NT' ■ "What is the electron arrfinaement (start by "!CHR*(34) 

and f mi sh Willi " ; Ci-iP? <34) ; " ) " - 
i70!NF'UT J*! IF JJ-^F* THEN PRINT"ELE(:T RON ARRANGEMENT: " s F*! ELSE 
PRINT'CORRI^CT" 

- neutrons in this element" 

"CORRECT" ELSE PRINT"NO. QF 

210INPUT J: IF J=I THEN PR INT "CORRECT" ELSE PRINT"nD. of 
protons=ato(ni c number . Whi ch .' s " ; I 

220 PRINT"Which qroup is this element in?"; 

230 INPUTJiIF J=G THEN PR INT "CORRECT" ELBE PRINT "riRauP=nQ. 

□f electrons on the outer shellof the atom" 
240PR I NT" ANOTHER ELEMENT"; 

250J*=BET-f: IF J*-"Y" THEN CLSiGOTO ftO ELSE END 
260PR I NT "ELEMENT IS NOT IN THE FIRST TWENTY ELEMENTS." 
270PRINT"F'LEASE TRY AGAIN" ! FORO=1 TO lO'XJ! NEXTOt RUN 
280DATAHYDRaGEN, 1 , I .H , " I" , , 1 , 1 
290DATAHELlUM.2,4,He,"2",2,2,:.' 
300DATALITHIUM,~. ? ,Li , "2, I " , 4 ,3 , I 
310DATABERYLLIUM,4,9.Eie,"2.2" .5,4,2 
320DATABDR0N.5, 1 1 , B, "2 , 3" , 6, 5 , 3 
330DATfiCARB0N , 6, 12, C," 2, 4 ",6, 6, 4 
340DATAN I TRGGEN , 7 , 1 4 , N , " 2 , 5 " , 7 , 7 , 5 
3S0DATA0XYGEN,8, 16, , "2, 6" , B , 8 , 6 
360DATAFLUOR I NE , ■? , 1 9 , F , " 2 , 7 " , 1 , 9 , 7 
370DATANEDN , 3 , 20 , Ne , " 2 , 8 " , 1 , 1 , S 
3S0DATASQDILIM, 11 . 23.Na , " 2, 8 , 1 " , 1 2, U , 1 
390DATAMAGNESlUM,12,24.Mg, "2,8,2", 12,12,2 
400DflTAALUMINIUM,13,27,Al , "2 , 8 , 3" , 14 , 13 , 3 
4I0DATASILlCUN,14,2B,Bi , "2 . 8 , 4" , 1 4 , 1 4 , 4 
42ODATAPH0SFH0RIJS , 13 , 31 ,P , "2 , B , 5" , 16, 15 , 5 
430DATASULPHUR, 16 , 32, G , "2, 8 , 6" . 16 , 16, 6 
440DATACHL0RINE, 1 7 , 35. S ,C1 , "2 ,8 , 7 " , 16. S , 1 7 , 7 
450DATAAREON, 18 , 36 , Ar , " 2 ,8 .8" , IS, 18,8 
460DfiTAPDrrAS1UM,l'v,39,K,"2,B.8,r',20,19,l 
4 70DA t ACALC I UM , 20 , 40 , Ca , " 2 , 8 . 8 , 2" , 20 , 20 , 2 

4aODAT AZ . o , M , X , " O " , O , (> .0 Elemer 



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JERICHO ROAD (Speclrum 48K)' Full fealu red educational adventure set in biblical limes. Explore soul bern Israel, meeting 

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HOOKEDI (Dragon 32): Entertaining graphical fishing game for 1 or 2 players. Suitable tor all ages. Many levels of play, with 

optional joysticlis. ES.7S. 

MONSTER MATHS (Dragon 32): Maths educallon lor B-t 4-year-olds, Menu driven, with five functions and nine levels ot 

difficulty E6.95. 

SCIENCE 1 (BBC B); Physios education lor ll-IS-year-olds, Covers, lenses, mirrors, balances, meters and thermometers. 

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EMPIRE (BBC B] Eliciting strategy game for all ages. With eight difficulty levels. Save the world from the evil Empire! E6.9S. 

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Infant Pack (E3 95). Junior Pack (E3,95), Puizler (E6,95). Family Programs (E6,9S), Fun and Games (E6,95), 
Live and Learn (E6,95), City Defence (E5,75), Fun to Learn (E6.95|. 

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PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY 

Name 



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special introduction offer 
E5.95 (inc P&P and VAT) 
FOR THE 48K SPECTRUM 
An original game with on-screen scoring plus 
Hl-Score. Watch out for the Spider, mind the 
Bees don't confuse. Remember eat all your 
veg, a Super Carrot can Improve your 
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months In a garden like this? 

DEALER ENQUIRIES WELCOME - 
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Please send Cheques or P/Ds to: 

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Pre-defined Sounds 



n Dragon 



wlial can be done on the Dragon wfien 
using machine code. II gives Ihree pre- 
defined sound effects which are an expio- 
sion, iaser and gunshot. The sounds are 
accessed by the Usro (value) tunclion 
whose value is a numbei between 1 and 3. 



I have included a ctieok sum lo check (or 

As a final point i have discovered a 
strange Rom routine which deletes all tha 
iine numbers Irom any Basic program. To 
fry It Exec 35996. 



20 '!«• PoDuiar ConDutino **** 
3:- '»*« UeeUy ' «•• 

10 ' ««*PSE-DEFINED SOUND&Mtf* 
5C 'm*BV N. EDMUNDS !9B3.»«t» 
M '««<^aR THE DfiflGON 32,**»» 



SO 'LERo;:;=EJe«T 

■?: 'JS'0!:>j;3En 

■M 'l.SR0l3)=ZiPLIKI0N 
-.;f ^;' L-EBP 200.32000 
m DflTfl K),flB,27.5D, 27.04, CI, 03,23, 05,Cfi, 02, 7E,l3,i4,Cl, 

01,26.37.34. 12, B6.F.23.8fl, OB, B7,FF,I3,ff.0!.ii7.flE.B7. 

5fl.B£"jo',SD. 1(1 
130 ' 
140 MTfl fl6, SO. BD, 10, 7(1,01,47,26, F3,B6,FF,23,8*,F7B7,FF, 

23.35.12,39,B4.0!.47.F7.F.20.86,'il,4fi,26,T).3g 

150 ' 

160 MTfl 12,12. !2, 12,12, :i,02, 26, 37,34, 32, B6,FF,23,afl, OB, 

B7 FF 23,aE,00,01,fl6.FD.B7.F.20.aD.17.7F.fF.20,BD.i2, 

iO.'5i;BE,M.3B.25,ED 
170 ' 
160 DflTfl B6,F.23.64,n,B7,FF,23,35,32,39,lF,12,31,T,», 

FC,39,12,12,12,12 
190' 
200 DflTfl 12 l2,12,I2,12,3i,12,B6,F,23,8fl,0fl,B7,FF,23,7F, 

01. 47.BE.B7. 98. fl6. 80, 60,14.35, 80,80. 10. 7fl. 01.47.26. =3. 



220 DflTfl B7.FF.23.35,!2.39.B4,01.47,B7,FF,20,86,FE,4fl.2fi. 

FD,39 
;J0 'END OF DOTfl 

240 'MBftSlC LOflDEfl FOR CODE»«» 
SO DflTfl "EW 

260 HEflD rt:!F s*="£ND" THEN 320 
27(1 LT «=WLC|H"»a»l 
260 PCht 32000+c.x 

300c=ctl 

11(1 G3TC 260 

32C IF CS019623 THEN PRlNT-DflTB ERBQfl.'iSTQP 

j3: KF usrl)=32000 

:.4o pmNT'suHKCT=iJSRO(ii" 

30 FOR 6=1 TO 300!NEn d 

X0a=usrOUl'l=UlffiR. 

:70 PR;nT-LPEEB=USRO(2>"2=L(KR. 

380 FDD d=: TC JOO:ICIT d 

'i90 a=05rO(2) " 

too [lSI^T■E(Pi.DSI0H4JSR0(3^ 

415 m d=l TO 300!ne«td 

lao a=UBrOI5)'3^!lPLDSION. 

jJO 'fMH** 

Jser functiOi»i- 
USRO!l)=Bunshot soutxl. 
JSHIJ(21=La5er sourtd. 
LiSRO'31:EjiDlosion BDuno 



Pre-defined sounds 
by N Edmunds 



Telephone 



1 Spec 



rum 



This program is a menu-driven user- ; 
friendly telephone directory Iqc either mod- 
el of Special m. The 48 K Spectrum will 
allow for about 600-700 enlnes. The 
r16K are included 
'am for n entries: 



necessary al 



7e 



REM I TELEPHOME DIRECTORY 
REM » © r ■— ""- -°='' 
REM **i* 

i BORDER 0- 

I POKE S3BSS,8 
: GO BUB 200 
I PRINT TRB 5; ' 
- ■" - RESTORE 

PRINT : PRINT 

FOR R=i TO B 

PRINT " 



HHRRJSOhJ 1SS3_ 
"pfiPER ©-■ 



TELEPHONE DIRE 



ai0 LET L=l 

Sae DIT1 Z (100' 

230 i-ET ZZ = 1 

999 RETURN 

laaa cls : prin 

E DIRECTORY" ; RT 

MBER . ■' 

iBlO PRINT .■ PR 



PL ERSE TYPE 
1.1 I5H TO RDO 
- - - PRESS 



•3,Bi fi:i 



a»3,9;B 



*»JD 



SC WE,XT O ,.., „„ ..^_, „-r= 

Qa DRTR "RDD R NUMBER , DEt-CTE 

fl NUhSeR" , "SERRCH" , "EXIT PROGR« 
M",-LDBD n rH-E-.-Sflyg R FILE 

100 LET I«=TNKEY»^ IF I*= 'HE 
N GO TO 100 _ ,_ .,„, 

Iict IF I*<i"'l RND IS < > £ 
IJ<?"5- RND I» *>■■*■■ AND I». 
,HND I«<VB" THEN GO TO lao 

120 LET GOTOeCODE I*-4.S 

130 GO TD CGDTO=H0B0) 

14.0 STOP 

200 DIM Lt(50g,32.' 

15-21 DECEMBER 19B3 



YOUR^ENTRV 

MAXIMUM LENGTH RLt. 

CHflRRCTERS, 

■' ■ GO TO 1020 

104-0 PRINT RT 13,0; "IS THIS B^L 

O.K. ^"iflT 15.0;D*;RT 17,0;'XF N 

or, THEN PRESS 'N' AND YOU WILL-, 
BE TRANSPORTED BHCK TO THE MENU 

, PRESS -Y- TO RDD THI=> ENTR 

Y TO YOUR DIRECTORY.- 

1B50 IF INKEV» = -" — ■ 

laeo IF INKEV»!>"Y" AND INKEY*-! 

"N'' THEN GO TD 1050 



^„.„„ _. D«.i3S THEN PRINT RT 

1,©; FLRSM 1, "SORRY, ""■'" =-^ry^ 
15 TOO LONG. "'«■'■'"" 
OUED IS 32 



THEN GO TO %»^ 



ftBRCUS SDFTUIflBE-Uh-LimiTEO. 



MUSIC TUTOR. 



E9.95 



EDUCATION 



i& 



ff-ms-fif 




£6.50 



T»l,BOLTOH 383839 , 



VIC20 

32K SWITCHABLE TO 
3K, 16K, 24K, BLOCK 5 

£49.95 « VAT 

16K SWITCHABLE TO 3K 
£34.95 IncV.T 

16K STANDARD 
£27.95 inc VAT 



Overseas ardeia adfl E3 PiP 
rslBpnonB youf Access or Visa csffl number tor despatch by 

RAM ELECTRONICS 
(FLEET) LTD 

(DEPT. WM) 

106 FLEET HOAD. FLEET, HANTS GU13 BPA 

Telephone (02514) SSSS 

Callers welcome Monday lo Saturday 

Half-day Wednesday. Trade enquiries welcome 




POOLSWINNER 



AWAVS and HOMES 



EASY TO use 
DATABASE 



J, COMMODORE 64. DRf 
(4BK). ZXei fI6KJ 
£1S (all Inclusiva) 



^^ S«l«e S«fCw«r« ^^ 



PRESENTING THE BEST GAME EVER 
SEEN ON YOUR DRAGON 32 




ti dl & 9 BtTBttma 



FROM 3 

MAKE CHEQUES PO PAYABLE TO M&D SYSTEMS 

OF 24 MEADWAY. FRIMLEY. SURREY 

NO JOYSTICKS REQUIRED. 
DEALERS ENQUIRIES WELCOME. 



POPULAR COMPUTING WEEKLY 



OPEN FORUM 



THEN LET 1 



''p6uSE B; 



E DIRECTORY" 
Ilea PRINT : I 

■^ SUCCESSFUL ... 

flHV KEY TO COMTINUE. 

C-L5 : GO TO *C1 

S00O CLS : PRIMT TRB 5; "TELePHOM 

- DIRECTORY". PRINT 

20ie PRINT "E. DELETE PN EJ^TRV 

SBSa PRINT : PRJNT -.■ PRINT "TYPE 

IN OS MUCH HS YOU KNOU OF THE 
ENTRY UHICH YOU WISH TO ERRS 
E." 

3030 INPUT E* 

Sa&e IF LEN E»>3a then PRINT AT 
6,0; FLPSH J; "SORRY THIS IS TOO 

, ^...^ =rtn TUT= rinrvT- Tf-i M fJR DIRECTC 



R' TO CONTINUE. ' 
2190 INPLCT f - 

E DIRECTORY 



GO TO 4.0 



3020 PRINT "INPUT THE ITEM YOU W 



3070 NEXT R 



GO TO a03l» 
2OB0 CLS : PRINT TAB S; "TELEPHON 
E DIRECTORY": PRINT ; PRINT 
2060 FOR P=l TO 500 
2065 LET LEWl=LeN E« 

207B IF LSin, TO LEN1>=E4 THEN P 
RINT L«(0, TO LEN L»lfl>); LET Z\ 
ZZ) =fi 

3»e'S NEXT R 

2090 PRINT "END OF SCRN . " 
aieo PRINT . PRINT "DD YOU WISH 
TO ERASE THESE ENTRIES 7" 
2110 PRINT : PRI^^■ "TYPE 'V FOR 

YES, -N- FOR NO." 
2120 IF INKEY(="" THEN GO TO ElE 



5000 CLS 



PRINT TRB 5;"TELEPHOW 



. _ _. _ ._ PRJNT "ST»I 
T THE TRPE RND THEN PRESS flWi' 
_ i_opr, Yj DRTR L«(. 



.. . PRINT "PL 

ESSE TYPE IN THE NRME OF THE FI 



214.0 IF INKEY* = 



THEN CLS 



6020 5RUE " 
6030 CLS : 



GO TO 4-0 



214.5 IF L» 
ET L« (ft) =" 
glBg NEXT B 



TO LENl) =E* 



Cobwebs 



on Dragon 

This program will prodLca b 



graphic men 
Program ni 



le CLS ■PRIHTeSQS. "cobwebs" 

20 FOR HX'=i TO 2000 

30 NEXT XX 

40 FOR S«0 TO 4 

50 RHODES. l^PCLSr SCREEN!. I 

60 FOR KK-4 TO 16 STEP * 

70 IF KK-12 OR KK-20 THEN 50 ELSE 60 

80 FOR R=e TO 255 STEP KK^GOTO100 

90 FOR 0=255 TO STEP -KK 

100 Y=Fi;-<Cfl*191^255J 

110 LIHE<0.Y)-<fl.l91?.PSET 

120 LINE<FI.191>-<255.191-Y>>PSET 

130 LINEt255.I91-V?-(255-fl.0>-PSET 

140 LIHE<255-fl.0>-<0.Y>>PSET 

150 NEXT n 

160 FOR CJ-J TO 2000^NEXTD 

176 PCLS 

130 NEXT KK 

190 NEKT S 

Cobwi 
byJB 



15-21 DECBriBER 1983 



I RUNESOFT i 



i® 



SPECTRUM 4eK 

SPeCTflEALM: by J A Sla 
Can yoj help Speclrta si 



fBoth cassettes are beautifully packaged with gold 8 
blocked, black leather effect inlay cards and instruc- f 
v^ lion leaflet. * 

g available soon 

S DRAGONIA — Dragon 32 

® PARADOX — Spectmm 48K 

ffi Trade enquiries weicome. £ 



^1^ 



New from SUNSHIHE 

Master your ZX 
Microdrive 




l/ilzard Sariwore 


k 


FOR DRAGON 32 


^. 


ZX SPECTRUM 48K r. 


*M 


ORIC-1 48K % 


W 


DMBON STAR TREK DRAGON 3? 

A rsBl lima version featufing a 10 >: 10 ga(a>y. shield 

pholm iDipedoes, status repons, sigrals recaiueO. 

black holes, planets and planet landfall, pulsars, nova. 
comes with mslruction manjal. 


£8.45 

Dcking, 

alically 

HicuNy, 


nME PORT 1 DRAGON IZ 

ZX SPECIRLM 4ax 

your foboi and acquira tha objad IHal Iha Keeper will ask 


EB.45 
CS.U 

, Direct 


EVICTOR DRAGON 32 and DRIC-1 tSK 

ZX SPECTRUM 48K 
An original arcade game presented in high resolution 


raphics 


selt-regenerating and defended base. Features lasers, pliasors 
and OomOs Five skill levels, Oraflon 32 and Onc-1 versions 

RECOMMENDED BV THE MICROCOMPUTER SOFTWARE CLJfl 


Me-icesilKluslie MalorOw. Clar^as □<«««( ordors 


■ 


WIZARD SOFTWARE, OEPT. PCW, PO BOX 23 \ 
DUNFERMLINE, FIFE KY11 5RW { 


ABO available (mm sodwara relallarB in UK. Europe and M 
Sflnd large SAE (7in. « 5in ) lor lull prograrr calalogue 


».„ 



^^^ 







POPULAR COMPUTING WEEKLY 



OPEN FORUM 



Cell Attack 



e dish using keys < 

Just ask your while Di 

Jn Vic20 doevatyday? 

The object ol the game Is 10 slop Ihe 
chromosomes ge^ms etc Irom b'eaking program noles 
through Ihe spongy ayer of Ihe ca I To 1-20 iniiiaiisaiion. 



1, control your miniaturised ci 



1 REM BV G.CBRSOTT 
I HI=0 U=30 P0KE3ee7ft 15 GOSUE5000 
5 f='^b8?S P0KE65e 128 

10 PPINT 1 P0KE36iS7'» 156-C=36720-S(=I=7999 
.0 '^C=0 

dfl PPim Wa LELL HTTflCK 1"; 

48 PRINT IH STOP THE 1 HPOMOSOHES ENZVME3- 
GERMS POLtIPS RND RHTIEOEIES FftOH" 
■iy PPINT flTTRCKING -.OUP CELLS IF THEV ER 
EFlK IHTO VUUP CELL "UURE DEAD" 

•, PFINT WESRTTP KER ■ S^OHTROLS!" 
FR T S HRC hE -Kl-LEFT" 

FF T » EN ME (■■•-RIGHT" 

Bl EF 

si FOL P H ="HI 

c « TIE D 

f lilg]»41 PH E r 1 CONTINUE": 

E I IFmK THE 6 
F T FFIN F RT=1TO20 NEXT:NEXT 
T T F KE eof "^5 



f T P F F F FCF F FPFGFGFGFFFFFFFFFFF 
FFFFFFFFFFF 

ffi T III mil I iiiiiiii!" 
at FFI T II I II I iiiiniiii" 
FFpfT -rrjMi ne s" 



FE 



[■*5jh 



. . U-IHT'RNB''l 

ei IF L ■'0flNI'^C<56THENQO UBbBBB 

10 IF C ie0flNIl=L 10ebTHENGOSUB9000 

1 Fp HNurrTni « I'^e 140 fe 160 



ijc PR NT tt!nHhniHnBni(»i<K[BragnD!M!i s"sc" 

Ts? POKE^H 

IS8 POKEjbS. 5,1/5 FuRDE ITOU IIE?^T:P0KE3687 

5.01't=lJ-0.25;IFU<lTHENU=l 

190 D=D+22:D1=IP+C*22 

!95 POKEE.K:P0KErn.CL 

500 P0KEIi~22.32 

?ie ifFEEH'':D*22>=0THENPOKED.32:SC=SC+>:6-U.': 

Gi:isuB200ec.OTOi,00 

-'^f !FFEEK''D+;2^=i;0RPEEK<D+22'=rTHENP0KED, 
52 PCiKED-^^-l. ?2-C'CiTO100 
230 IFPEEK'rD+22:'-.-:>9THEHlS5 

239 P0kE56S69. 240 

240 PRINT"S«aWfiB»Il»MPHBO0Mi" 

241 IF5C>HITHEHHI=SC 



250 PCKEV.-IS 

255 PCt:E3e877, 12s 

260 FORL=15TO0STEP-.015:POKE36878,LNEXT:P 

0KE36e77. 

26i ='P!NT"T' 

269 i^OBT=lT08 

270 P0KE36S79,. 136 

275 E£="aaikiaisn'' 

27e ^=!HTCRHD<1)*7>+1 

1" DS=fiIBfEt.X.l> 

27§ '^RIKTD*: 

^£■0 PRI^IT" aCELL fiTTFlCK"" 

251 HE;<T'PPINT".9" 

?a0 PRINT" Bf^DU flllflSSED Fl SCORE OF".SC 
560 IFSC:-HITHENHI=SC 
ne ^RINT"S»n'HE HI-SCORE IS". HI 
■526 PFINT"»M RNOTHER GnrlE<V/NV' 
330 INPUT" ";fl* 

540 IFFiI="V"THEM5 

150 S=lNT'.RHDa>*255-' + rP0KE36879.X:EHE 
' 900 GETfl* ' I F(tS= " . " THENSfl=3l=l-l : F'OKESR+ 1 .. 32 
1010 IFfil=". "THEN3fl=Sfl+l ^POKESfi-l ■ 32 
1020 IFSflC79SBTHBJSFI=799S 
1030 IF=fi"900'=THENCfi=8009 
La40 POKESfljB FnKESFt*C 
050 RETURN 
_M0P P^IE i: 

.0_ P0KE36S?6, ^RETURN 

^001 - ' 

5001 " T IJ0RRV,THIS IS HOT 

RBFEhtL <IHIT fl PIOHENT!!" 

5010 FrFi 1^ T I I- -■ FuKELPEEK':i*256e0);NE 

50=0 Fi.Fi=7168T07255 REflBR^POKEIiR'NEXT 

"1030 RETURN 

ze4' ChTHf 1 I' _" 1 = e '10 - 



II'II 



II 1 



I I I 



-.0-1, FETllFt' 

JiiHU PJfE c"7« 

-■tiji FFINT 

Illinilll -r HI 

a02n FPIHT lllllllllllllilllllin" 

PEmTV 

BECflUSE THIS PRGC'RRtl NfiS LISTED 
ON fl PET PRINTER, THE CONTROL 
5IGN FOR RED COMES OUT FIS B 



uniiii 

RETURN 



A QUALITY LIGHT PEN 

SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE 



* Red LED 




* 'Fre^Tand' dra^ng prog 

* 'LiQrafy merj' drawing 

* Example programs HI usti 



Datapen Microtechnology Limited 



Experience CDS 
programs yourself 

This Is'MaglcMeMes'a brand 

new Arcade 

game from CDS. 
Just one of a 
new range of 
exciting 
programs 
Arcade action, i 
3D Space I 
adventures ' 
Education 
and pure 
fantasy 




H£y wo!!! 

1 SPCCJKUM OWHlg 



Mar MISS nese 

. Hlff ^ FARMER-16K;aaKArcadBGame, 




SpyinEaslBarlin? 
will you complaW your 



Id copy (tor prinli. , 
-'IS. etc), Small Iraders and hobbyist! 
HOME IMVESTDH 
(Spectrum 1E)C'48K) 
lor the private inveslor. 



I, present yalues: i 



s apecilic sum: 



EACH £4.95 — BOTH FOR £6.99 (POST FREE) 

ORIGINAL SPECTRUM UTIUTIES AT REDUCED PRICES 

ZXed ToolHt (DK Tronics] ES.OO. Compiter IWye Vatleyl £8.50. 64 

Prmt'Masler DatiriB (Aliraed) E3.50, Kopycat (Med Solt) ra.Ofl. ZX 

Toolkit (Slar Dreams) EB.OD 

R.G. WINFIELOBSctEconlFIB 

Dept 1 , 7 Gore Lane. Rayne, Essex CM7 6RL 



Send ypui rtiasterplece. In the s^lctssl confidence 1o 

CCS. Lid, Saffron , f 74a High Street, 
Hornchurch. Esaei RW1Z GOP. Tel: (04024) 75613. 



OPEN FORUM 



on BBC 

a program tor two players. II should 



eilhet A or B, The idea o 
o destroy your partner ten I 
ove left end right. 




30 PRINT" DUAL" 

40 PRlt^T" ««**" 

50 PRINT" T3C0RE=THE TOP MfiNS SCORE," 

60 PRINT" BSCOR£-THE BOTTOM MANS SCORE. 



BO PRINT" THE IDEA OF THE GAI 
DESTROY YOUR OPPONENT BY t 
TEN TIMES." 
90 PRINT 
100 PRINT"KEVSj" 
110 PRINT"TOP MAN= Z-LEFT X- 

120 PRINT"BOTTaM MAN- ,=LEFT 

1-FIRE" 
.30 PRINT 



50O PRINTTAB 
510 PRINTTAB 
520 AS-GET* 
530 PRINTTAB 
540 PRINTTAB 
550 IFft»' 
54.0 IFA«= 



■PINT" 
50 BS-GET* 



■ BS-'^'THENGOTO 160 



90 
200 MOOE 2 
210 X-5 
220 V-^l 
30 Z-IO 
240 C-2B 
■50 COLOUR 131 
260 CLS 

270 VDU 23,24B.O. 
2B0 you 23,24'*, 
290 VDU 23,240,56, 
196,124 
VDU 23,241,36 
56,56 

23.242,40, 
320 VDU 23,243,56, 
254,198,124 
VDU 23,244,56, 
B4 , 56 , 56 
VDU 23,245,40 
350 VDU 23.250,24. 
255,255 
VDU 23,251,24.24. 



60.255,255,255,253 
60.60,60,60,60,60 
46,238,254, 




IFA«- 



Z "THENX-) 

X"THEN)("Xi-l!GDTO 610 
t "THENG0T0690 
."THENZ-ZtliGOTO 650 
, "THENZ-Z-1 I GDT0650 
"THENBOTD 760 



5aO JFA«- 

590 IFA«' 

600 IFft*: 

610 IFX=OTHENX-.| 

620 IFX"19THENX^ 

630 



650 IFZ=0THENZ=Z*1 

660 IFZ-I9THENZ-^Z-! 

670 COLOUR 1 

6B0 BOTO 410 

690 F0RT-26T00STEP-1 

700 PmNTTAB(Z*l.T-2);"." 

710 FOR DELAY-l TO 10:NEXT DELAY 

720 PRINTTAB<Z + 1,T-1):'' ' 

730 NEXT T 

740 IFX=Z AND A«=";" THENQOTOSSO 

750 aOTO 410 

760 F0RP-4T027 

770 PRINTTAB(X*1.P)!"," 

7B0 FORDELflV-lTOlOlNEXTDELflV 

790 PRINTTflB(X+l,P)) " " 

BOO NEXT P 

BIO IFZ=X AND A«="A" THENGQTO aso 

B20 GOTO 410 

830 PRINTTAB(X+1.Y) JCHR5248 

840 PRINTTAB(X-H, Y+1) )CHR»249 

850 SC=SC*liIFSC-10THENG0T0930 

B60 FDRT-1T02000:NEXTT 

870 GOTO 290 

BBO PRINTTflB(Z+l,C~l);CHR«24B 

890 PRINTT0B(Z+1,C);CHR»249 

900 S-S+]!lFS=10THEN930 

910 FDRT-lTD 2000lNEXTT 

920 QOT0290 

930 CLS 



960 F 



*INT" 



WELL DONE ' ' 



970 PRINT" YOU SHOT YOUR OPPQhtENT 

TO PIECES" 
9B0 PRINT" WOULD YOU LIKE ANOTHER 

GAME V/N?" 
990 C»-GeT» 
1000 1FC«="Y"THENG0T020ELSEB0T01010 
1010 CLS 
1020 PRINT"BYE-BYE HOT SHOT!" 



^^ DECEMBER 1983 



I SUNSHINE I 



Mastercode Assembler 

for the Commodore 64 

Full Commodore 64 Assembler/ Disassembler 



Mastercode is a substantial and complex 
program of use to anyone interested in 
writing machine code on the Commodore 64. 
Its features include: 

_J Machinecode monitor 

r: File Editor 

; ., Disassembler 

~ Assembler 

Mastercodeisa lull twopassassembler.lt 
accepts labels, variables and equations within 
assembly language programs. It is possible to 
store programs anywhere in memory, even in 
parts occupied by the Assembler, Programs con 
be saved to eittier tape or disc. 

The Machine Code Monitor Includes: 

■ OUTPUT OF MEMOIjy TO SCISEN OR PRINTER ■ MODIFICATION OF MEMORY ■ EXECUTION OF 

MACHINE CODE RJOGRAMS ■ SAVING OF MACHINE CODE FILES ON TO TAPE OR DISC 

■ LOADING OF MACHINE CODE FILES FROM TAPE OR DISC ■ STEP BY STEPTRACING OF THE 

EXECUTION OF A MACHINE CODE PROGRAM, INCLUDING DISPLAY OF REGISTER CONTENTS 



The File Editor Inctudes: 

■ ENTRY OF NUMBERED LINES OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE INSTRUCTIONS ■ LISTING, INDIVIDUALLY 

OR IN BLOCKS, OF PREVIOUSLY ENTERED LINES ■ DELETION, INDIVIDUALLY OR IN BLOCKS. OF 
EXISTING LINES ■ RENUMBERING OF EXISTING LINES ■ SAVING OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE FILES TO 
TAPE OR DISC ■ LOADING OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE FILES FROM TAf^ OR DISC ■ ADDITION OF A 

BLOCK OF MEMORY SPECIFIED BY THE USER TO THE USERS ASSEMBLY PROGRAM 

The Assembler allows tfie translation of assembly language programs Into machine code with 

lull error checking, labelling and o range o( assembler directives. 







tsfcode Assembler 



LOOK OUT FOR THE SUNSHINE RANGE IN ■ 
W.H.SMIIH'S, flOOTS,JOHNMENZIES, | C 
OTHER LEADING RETAIL CHAINS AND . . 
THROUGH OUR NATIONAL NETWORK OF I , 
BOOK SHOPS AND SPECIAUST STORES. " ' 



POPULAR COMPUTII-IG WEEKLV 



T 



OPEN FORUM 



on Spectrum 
The program is called "averages' and 
10 tiorK oul mBBn and moOa 
avBfflgos. II is written lor Ihe ZX Speclrun 
(eilher model) bul sliould prove easy It 
convert to run on mosi other Basics. At Ihi 



Averages 



start o( Ihe program you will be ashed how 
many numbers you wish to compare. New 
you type in Ihose numbsrs (entering eacfi 
number in turn using Enler). Finally the 
computer will print a list of Ihe numbers 
entered followed Dy the modal average (If 



lie 
~130 INPUT aa.i 



PRF=EBr e -. 



press EHTER 

125 zr - ' ' 

130 EMM 

140 FOR n- 

150 INPUT 

16S NEXT i 

17B DIM c 

laa FOR r> 

ISO LET c 

aeo tJEXT 1 

SIB FOR m 

220 FOR ri 



S4Q NEXT 

aSB NEXT 

aes t-ET d 

270 FOR n 

2S0 IF C I 



^113 FOR fl = 

336 PRIfST 

33B NEXT n 

34B PRINT 

36® IF a = i. 

36B PRIfJT 



(Type nuBba. 
i'"theh'' gq TO laa 
1 TO .a 



3BQ L-ET t.Otat=E) 

2313 FOR n = l TO ^ 

400 LET to ta t =toI3 t *-3 in> 

4. IB NEXT r> 

d.S0 PRINT - PRINT -. PRIHT -Th 

435 PRINT «a; "MIT RNV KE>' TO CO 



THEH UET C (») = 



THEN LET 

THEM l_ET 



SO TO 4-3B 
4BCJ IF .aS="i2 
4.7a IF ai = "<- 

48e 00 TO AS' 

SOB UPRIMT — 



THEN GO TO lae 

PRIffT PRINT 



SeS LPRIWT "ThS 

570 LPRIHT 'It 

560 UPRINT ; 1-P 

530 RETURN 




programmes (the kind you 
Load). This ghastly noise can 
be heard in (he small hours on 
ttie FN1 and medium wave 
bands for Spectr 



computet; 



11 thai 






Broadcasting 



1 menlLon another kind of 
radio, the broadcast radio. 
TheBBCandlBAIobceiacI. 
Microradio has so far only 
dealt with Ihe amateur and C8 
kimi radio, but you can't keep 
a good thing down and the big 
boys are getting into the act. 

Radio West in the Bristol 
area now has an extremely 
large audience for Iheir Oafa- 
rarrfl programme. They trans- 
mit a micro.show which discus- 
ses aspects of computing and 
then, laie at night when only 
Ihe computer freaks iirc at>- 

t5-E1DECErttBER19S3 



s the trusty radio 1 
corder and there are programs 
to be had for free. I must add 
that the disc jockeys do not 

) records much to Ihe 



fruslra 






The word is spreading and 
now Radio Victory is at it. 
They are sending Screens over 
the air with their logo and that 
of a certain software company 
not a million miles from Pons- 
moulb; shades of Pi mania no 

As it this was not enough. 



micros time. On Fridays at 
6.30 pm they have their own 
computer programme and will 
be transmitting the Loading 



kind as well. These will be in 
Basic for most microcompu- 
ters (and, 1 enpect. Welsh foi 
the Dragon). Radio Wales 

funny noises on 882 Khz in the 
medium wave, 

much for me, I don't get 
enough sleep as it is. There is a 

and going about Ihe 
of Swansea Sound 

hankering lo be a floppy disc 
jockey, so who knows, but 
that's another story. 

A quick word for all those 
lucky people who live in the 
Duchy of Cornwall. The Cor- 
nish Amateur Radio Club now 
has a computer section de- 
voted to the likes of us. E 
attended one of these meet- 
ings a while ago and was very 
impressed. Radio computing is 
becoming very popular down 



bands emanating from 
Cornwall area can now be 
that TTie Philosaphen Ouesi 
has been solved and the 1 

One point: please not 
information about Ihe Cornish 
Club can be obtained from 
Simon Rodda on Peniance 



ways bring a reply. It is ci 
mon courtesy, after all. 

Hay Barry GWBJJW 




THE DJyff DIAMOND TRILOGY 

My name is Diamond^ 

Dan Diamond, -''■" ■// "^ 

and this is my story. A story /# ' \% L- 

of beautiful meirmaids, • / '\ ^ 

bored robots "and dank, dark ^ 

dungeons; A story that f^^ ^^ 

started one muggy day -^'^ -^ 

in New York, and like 

the Big Apple, it's 

rottentb the core. 



TrUogyisthi . 

separate adventure 
-- - .Bach game 



a lavishly iUustrated ' 
20-page case fUe, and 
hints Cboth helpful and 
misleading;) which 
ive been hidden in 



s cost £9.95 each and are available/ ' 

e DRAGON 32, BBC MOBEL B and 48k ORIC-1 [^ 

e: Fishy Busine 

, and ORIC will be available February 1984). 



D F T UU R R 



Tony Bridge's Adventure Corner 




Graham (Wetv Releases] Taylor. George 



e prograr 






Anolher anomaly Ihal Blair 
Ihal lUe barrel can be used to carry 
oOjecls Ihal would olherwiae be loo heavy 
carry. Now, says Blair, ihe player is able 
jse Ihis in order 10 lake any ob]ecl Ihal 
mentioned in the program's description 
each location. Thus, stiould you wish. 



advenlurer). Have yob ever 
the importance of trying a gooa 
mean good, adventure ttie tirst lime. 1 1 
old' adventurers really should try to s 
'tieginners' the good adventures," 

We, the Grand Elf and I. try our be 
this column. Gunnar, to bring you u 



curtain at Beorn's 



;. go about it 



ik the computer lor an 
lould find that you are 
in. This can be repeated 
object present at any of 
e only stumbling-block 
It object may be carried. 



the barrel. He points out t) 

probably have taken ii beiorehand. And 
you cannot, logically, be in somelhing i! 
you are also carrying it — so the computer 

Finally, while talking ol barrels. Blair 
says: "We see so much today about 
graohic adventures — and I would argue 
that this trend has been largely instigated 
by The Hobbil. Some ol the serious adven- 
turers among us wonder whether this Is a 
good thing? When I first bought The 
HoObil. I was impressed by the very good 
graphics, but Ihe novelty soon wears off 
and the pictures begin to spoil Ihe game by 
njirang ones own concBplions. which can 
be exceptionally vivid. I lerrember reading 
that each picture takes up appronmately 
500 bytes and there are at least 20 

tS-JT DECEMBER 19B3 



' very importantly), to retain interest in ttie 

i old favourites . . . and don't forgei to keep 

an eye on the Wew Releases spol, where 

Graham Taylor will advise you on the 

latest programs. 

Gunnar continues "Being non-English, 
every time I begin a new adventure. I 
I actually face two adventures. The first is 

English language! ' 

Gunnar and his two sons have finally 
completed Ttie Hobbil. If the Thander 
household is feeling a bit lost and wonder- 
ing what fo try now, there is Valhalla 
awaiting them. As 1 write, this program Is 
number one in the sofware best-seller 
charts and Legend, its authors, claim that 



nust be in my second 
childhood I once started Valhalla at 1 1 .30 
am and finished at 1 am the following 
morning." I hope you have many more 
happy hours with this wonderful adven- 
ture, George! 
The Hobbil Hall of Fame 
Sieve Redhead (I do mention Golden 
Apple, Steve, and I agree, it is very good), 
Wayne Greaves, Kevin Marsh and Peler 
Bywaier, who says that he managed II 
despite not being one of those untortun- 

ound Manic Miner 20 
times before the program has loaded, or 
thrash the life out of Orbiler with Ihe teily 
iw you teel, Peler — even 
after reading all the letters in Popular 
Computing Weekly aboul how to beat 

point, then, of playing them. I wonder), I 
still can't gel past Eugene! 
Incidenlally, Peler, your otteervalions 
objects such as the 

off largel. You'll find the adven- 
ture harder to complBle wilhout them. 

J Pearson with 92.5 percent (and, no 
you are certainly not the only one to have 
bought Valhalla). Mike Docherly, Alan ana 
Daphne Davis. Daniel Pitcher , Sluarl 
Wedgmxa (who has also scored a mag- 
nificent 400 points in Crystals tantastic 
Halls ol Ihg Things) and finally Jason 
Turtle who has completed The Hobbil in 

To finish this week, a couple of pleas for 
help In Acomsofi's CssHe ol Riddles. Mark 
Richards, with a grand score ol lour, would 
like to know how lo progress past the 
wishing well, having 



idlhebi 



:kingcr. 



h of b 



s by Christmas, 



pounds 

which is very well deserved. 
in more detail at this program later, but lor 
now, it is gratifying to see that this stunning 
adventure Is gelting recognition. 
While on this sub|BCt, let me move on to 

ol Raynes Park in London. George is 69 
(which must make him eligible for a senior 
adventurer award!). He rescued a Spect- 
rum from his daughter, who was aOout to 
throw the thing out ol a window George 
doesn't say which adventure she was 
playing, but he has now given it a diet ol 
Valhalla which it seems to like very muchi 
"I never cease to admire and wonder at 
the programmers skill ... I also play The 
Hooai. but. lor me, it cannot hold a candle 
aoainsl Valhalla. Like the Grand Elf. and 



.O.O.P. mean? Are 
these the tellers on the wall ol Ihe corridor 
oldoom, Mark? If so. try going Up from the 
courtyard, standing In front ol the safe, and 
Sajnngtheword You could also try getting 
the bucket Irom the well (and persevere, il 
may not come up the first time). 

Andrew Goodalt Is also sluck in Castle 
of Riddles, al the top of the pinnacle after 
Ihe shooting gallery Is there a magic word, 
or does he need a rope'' He is also stuck in 
Digital Fantasia's Time Machine — how 
can he get out of the secret room under- 
neath Ihe desert'' 

In the near lulure I hope to be looking at 
some very interesting adventures that 
come, like The Hobbil. complete with 



I d hides is Oeslgnad for novica 



in Adventure you 



Adventura and cannot progress any turther, 
W'ilB lo: Tony BnOga, Adventure ConlBr, 
Popular Corrwjijling Vi/eekly. 12-13 Little 
IMwpan Street, London WC2R 3LD. 





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PEEK & POKE 




havf wen the words a lol and 

A but not Ansi, A^cii 
sljiiids for Amencan Slandard 
Code for Infoimolioa Inter- 
change. It is an agreed way of 

that a computer uses. Th 
capital letter A has a ciji 
65 whether it is used a 



LIGHT 
CONTROL 



Elec 

Although inosl compuletii 
add! tig their own characters id 



undent and. 



t difficu 



ASCII 
AND ANSI 



gelling my Hrsl 
compuler Tor Chrlslmat (an 
Acorn Eleclrnn). What b Ihe 



15-21 DECEMBER 1983 



video, then the monitor 
I accept this. With less elec- 

iiAci 

AND GREEN 

Lee Millsc! of Paradie Siiset. 

Wamiick. miles: 

f^ I have recenlly purch- 






;, This i 



QI own a VlcZO and would 
tUte Id conlrcd lighls. elc, 

IhroiiRh II. How Ls this dtine 
and Is there a bvok an the 
sabjerl? 

A Th.s can be done, but 
'^ you will need a relay of 
some sort. The Vie will'not 

mains relay direclly. which 
means that you will have to 
use a ironsistor-driveti relay to 
cope with the tow voltage. It 

frnm the mains, then you will 
have 10 take care to isolate the 
extra mains power supply that 

As far as I know, there are 
only two books on the subject. 
20 Simple Electronic Projects 
for I/ie ZXSI. Speanim and 
other Computers by Stephen 
Adams, which is heavily orien- 
tated to the Sinclair compu- 

useful general information, 
and Simple Interfacing Pro- 
jects by Owen Bishop, which 
te comprehensive and is 
;d to a particular compu- 



vety impor- 
ni wnen it cotnes to enabling 
'o computers to talk to each 

slightly different. Il 



Is for A 



can Nali 



stead it uses a similar one lo 
the common Microsoft Basic. 
Microsoft is used on the Com- 
modore, Dragon and Oric, to 



DIDICATED 
UNIT 



A Essentially, Ihe differ- 
dedicated unit and the other is 



mitted over the air. Thus, any 
signal going into the set via the 
aerial socket is processed etec- 
Ironically and decoded before 



signal, but equally unneces- 
sary for the signal produced by 

Ihe video oulpul from the 
compuler into UHF, so that it 

via the aerial socket. All Ihis 
electronic manipulation of Ihe 
signal, causes interference, re- 
sulting in a loss of clarity. 



colour. In the case of large 
blocks, the screen dlslnrUi in 
Ihe middle. When using black 
as a screen calinir, the tv flick- 
ers uncontrollably and even 
Addling with Ihe tuning does 
nol help. 1 have to turn ofT the 



CouU you lell mc If this is a 
computer fault? II. works per- 
fectly with a mono set. 
B P Knar of Garden Way. 
Lilllesborough. Lanes, idso 

1 own a Vlc20, unexpanded. 
and il Is faulty (1 used another 
Vic lo check}. When ushig a 
black border 1 lou all green 
charw;ler?, whkh turn white, 
while cyan and yellow go pale. 
Can you tell me wlial is causing 
this? 

1 have been on lo Commod- 
ore and they say Ihey have not 
heard of Ihe problem before, 
t this problem 






signal prised that Commodot 



have not 
gat a definite answer, but one 
possible solution was offered 
to me by Stephen Adams. 

Most probably, the problem 
lies in Ihe Vic (Video Interface 
Chip), or Ihe assotnaled dis- 
creet circuitry. The phasing for 
the colour green is also the 
reference phasing for the other 
colours, so while a different 



. Thcrcfoic, il y 



are using black and green, you 
ate in effect just sw ' ' 
colour on and off. 

If you have iried retuning 
your television and failed, 
then it is probable that there is 
a small problem in the > ' ' 
tircuilry. Usually Ihis v 
cause no trouble, but when 
black and green, which a 
constantly switching the screi 
display on and off. are used 
together, then Ihis might w 
serve to exacerbate any faults. 

En Lee^s 
as if Ihe problem is that Ihe 
Vic chip needs to action the 

phase. This happens when you 
power up. 1 am afraid thai 
can offer little help in fai 
finding, particulariy if t 
problem comes from within 
Ihe Vic chip ilself. 

t am afraid that all I can saj 
is return your computer if it i^ 
still under guaranlee, 

WHAT IS 
A RADIAN? 

Daiirf Giennel of Banhury. 
Oxfordshire, wriien: 

QI have a Spectrum, bul 
Ihe i|uestion 1 want to ask 
Is not about the Speclmm in 
particular. I would like I 






s. Nev 



^*. cdir 



t the 






established. Then 

source, radius. En formal 
terms, a radian is the angle 
subtended at ihe middle of Ihe 
circle, by an arc the length of a 
radius of that circle'. 
Imagine a circle of two cent- 

where it reaches Ihe edge of 
the circle draw an arc the 
length of the radius, i 
case 2cm, From there c 
second radius. The jnglc made 
b\ ilies. ■ 



Is there anything about your compuler you don't 
undwstand, and which everyone else seems to take 
tor granted? Whatever your problem Peek it to tan 
Beardsmore and every week he wMI Poke back as 
many answers as he can. The address is Peek & 
Poke, PCW, 12-13 Little Newport Street, 
London WC2R 3LD. 



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POPULAR COMPUTING 

WEEKLY 

NEEDS HELP 

Is there anyone out there wilti Dbase II on a Sirius? 

We are looking for someone to write some DBase II 
routines to help with the administration ot Popular 
Computing Weekly. Our own machines are used 
constantly so you must be able to follow a brief and 
work on your own. 

If you are Interested In the work, and money, call 
Duncan Scot, Popular Computing Weekly, on 
01-437 4343. 



ASTROLOGY 



46K Spectrum, BBC, Commodore 64 

Dragon, 1 6K ZX81 , Sharp MZ80 A 

NewBrain, Tandy, Genie, PET 

Please send large SAE to: 

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Also games lor Dragon 32. Dealer Enquiries welcoma. 




ZX81, SPECTRUM, DRAGON 
BBC AND VIC 

SOFTWARE LENDING LIBRARY 

We have for hire from 50p (including postage] 
programs for your computer. 
E5 for life membership (less than the cost of a sin_ 
game) brings you the Software Lending Library 
memliership kit including catalogue, newsletter. 

All tapes lent with full manufacturer's permission. 
Send a cheque or postal order for E5 to Software 
Lending Library, PO Box 3, Caslleford, West Yorks 
staling name, address, and computer type. 



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POPULARCOMPUTINGWEEKLV 



CLASSIFIED 



CALL DIANE DAVISON 01-4374343 FOR SEMI/DISPLAY ADVERTISINGi 



IGAMES SOFTWARE 



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Lina tiy line; ZOp per word, 
minimum 20 words. 
Saml-dlsplay: ES pai single coi- 
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FMT. 0' supply rough sewng 
inSoictloria.) 

CondlllonB: All copy lor CIbbsi- 
ftsd seoBon mu81 be pre-paid. 
Chsoues and goslal orders ghould 
Bifiva at teasl two vreeka before 
the puUicabon date 






3 Diane Davis C 





Here's my classified ad. 

(Please write your copy in capital letters on the lines below.) 




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Please cut out and 

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liar Compulmg WeWly 


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15-21 DECEMBER 1933 



DISCOUNT SOFTWARE 



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PHOENIX 
SOFTWARE 

Are looking tor Machine- 
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games. We have an idea 
which could make your 
game Ihe best seller m 
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116 Marsh Road 
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tpoiing Wetkly. 12-13 Link- 
pori Slrcel, London WOR 
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1S-21 DECEMBER 1983 



COMPUTER SWAP 



Mama 

AddTMS 



^^^^■■1 


'^^^^'^ 


L0I3KI Spectrum software. tSolden 
AoijlB EJ, Jumping Jack E3 50. Ah 
DiOdums E3 50, Planol ol Deatn E3 50, 
Pimania ES. Ovsr the Spoclnim (Book). 

many Books and migaiines, eiB5 oi 

SPECTRUM loyslick.lntanaceES Tel' 
StevenasB (M38} St IB34 alter 7 pm 

giy Horace. Horace Goes Slilina. 
Horace and Ihe Spioeis, Plana! oi 
Dealh, Inca Cur=o. E2 60 eacli or El □ 

originals including Scraiible, Flighi. 
Slmulalkm, QS cne5s. Inca Curse. 
Gdaen Apple. Monopoly. Magic Moun- 
tain, PnaipsusTomO.WCodar Almair 
price plus postage Tel. RugB* 73594 

dgaSM97aBflrapm 

and up 10 dale collection Swap 

B es Ill276(lalter6.30pni. 
48K SPECTRUM. ZX printer, live rails 
Ol pnniBf paper (™ih manuals and 

(ZBO). 'soliwara IrWuaing aasamblor. 

SDK SPECTRUM, pnnler, Kemslon 
(oyslick. Bighi professional cessones. 

pip Musi go soon! Tei 03302 EMs"^ 

fridges, £99 TBI 01-935 3887 
■ ana O Level Revision programs lor 

VICM, C!U. joyalidi. four carlriagea, 

ATARI 4110 4aK including Basic car- 
Indgo and manuals, 410 recorOB, pair 

sottware including Star Raiders and 

(04941 e«333a. 

ATARI VCS min fi cannages including 

Slar Masler. Aslerokls * Space Invad- 

ATARI «0 18«^»llh2^,oysliclB . 

ATARI MO IBK, Basic cartridge ■ 

ATARI 400 4aK. recorder - CISO of 
soHware, loyslK* as ne*. one year 
auaraniee. only E2S0. TeP: 01-550 

loysliok. Basic t EMO ol software, sell 

series e>cepl advenlursiana. will lell 
oMour a game lor ElO. Tal: Hamillon 


swap, especially Inieresled m Educa- 

SPECTRUM HANDBOOK, Kempilon 

jDystlck. inlerfsce. uu-F,le. Arcadia, 
■Dragon-sa aiU how to make oosl of. 
Dragon Mountain. Personal Finance, 

canndgss. Raidars ol Lost Ar* or Ami- 
Oar lor Yare Hevenja, Seo Berier*. 
PfKianii. Demon AHack, plus 10 olher 

Buclilay546313(afta.6'om). 

SWAP Oriel 4aK. casssM playsr. 

prelorred Please phone ■Mac" on 
0742-669955 (Sheffield) 

canriOges lor a iOK Soeclrum. Tel: 

BBC MODEL A 32K. will nin any 

8 lull model B. E22a Tsl' Hamlllon 

(0599) 42B43B 

ACORN ATOM I2K -i- 12K - SP, 

BBC MODEL B HiQH QUALITY 

lures ftok), 'nudge, gBmUa. colfect, 

E3 70 (lapel, ES.QO (disc) BeDeison. 
19 Trelawney Road. Saltash. Cornwall 

R^n, Eagle PSU. Bug-By'le -747': 

■■Peeko-Compuler , 3 Books, only 

DISK INTEHFACE Idf BBC micro wilh 
lull li.ing msuuctions, al present lillad 
ID issoe 3 board, for t55 Tel. 01-2D2 

50O0. 48K to I29K, throe^liBk dnvB. 
remote, lenninal (rriDnilor hByDoard 

TRSBD, 1EK. good cnndltion plus 
manual and leads, cassette. rBconler 

lion laed pnnler, uaas standard lype. 
wnler rlbBons. coal over E5D0 Perlecl 

wonii). E4D onn Tel 434-2074 after 1 

Be'lwBen 5 urn and 7 pm only (Pnvala 


MAGAZINES 


WANTED 


DRAGON USER 


WANTED 

us ciso Bias rajoiiws. on an 

D m'sarMiiB I'D bo>''ei" 
S gilob., Hiell Rfl!1 MB 


A flO OEH required By puBlianor 

ng project II yog know what 

orconlaclBo. No PAi.to 

□pu Compulinfl Weekly. iai3 Lil- 


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1 ACCESSORIES 




SPECTRUM DUSTCOVERS 
Only E1.75 (Int. PSP) 

FDO BDftHn. Panlly nyt' 
Hlldin Lini, EUnbridgt. Hint 




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We urgenlly rKUim lor a nallon- 
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HAINBOWRESEAHCH 

PONDERS ENO. ENFIELD. MIDDX 




="SSS 


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1 Computer Swap 
1 01-437 4343 




SOFTWARE LIBRARY FOR 
SPECTRUM AND ZXB1 OWNERS 

""".rssjiffl"- 

M«RI» BRIDGE. 
WISAN. LANES. 


Free readers enlrlas to buy 

or sell a computer. 

Ring 01-437-4343 and give 


Jawi, DiOdurm. M«,o Chess, BIrnd 
Alley. Desen Palrol Lunar Roacue. Will 
wap loi VrcM soltwa.B ni C20 lol J 
Cioskcll. 9 G.an^Ole Read. Lancaalai. 

SPECTRUM SOFTWAHe: VU-30 EG. 
SpeciMuna, Zip-Zop ej. Spacires. 

Games 5 (Star Trek). Minefl-out E3. 
lolBicSBlor Micro Inlerlace CB Tet: 
01 -393 3909 (alter fi 30 pm) 
SPECTRUM SOFTWARE lor sale, 
Winged Avonger E2, Ground Allacl E3. 
3DTan< E2. Tel. Paul on Ol-MDBOSS 
EPSON MXM F/T. dot maio. prinla.. 

Jumping Jack, Molar Maul, PIBIBI ol 
Desin, Escape 30, Tunnel, 3D Tan>. 
Fausta Folly Tel.Oan. Ra,gale4B564 

games including games designer. 


cassWBs 0. dBla? PIbbbs v.[ile or 

Iramalr 1. 65M Worms, Wesi Gor- 

many 

VIDEO GAME CLUB by Ihe Spectrum 


1 FOR SALE 1 


SUPER EXPANDER CAflTRICQE, 

Super lanOer cannage and Sug.B/ra 
Vicmsn ana Aslwpids loi VicEO SbB 


5^■^a.n„^e,^ 


cruding HoDbil. Hans -Am. Manic 
Miner. Tranakanla Tower, Horace 
Goes Sk.ing and mora wim casselle 
playei, onlyEilO. Poole D30Z BB64?3 


swap lor any olrter Scolt Adams 
Held (04841 21532, Belore 6 pm. 


SWAP OR SELL TI994A ' joyslicks 
+ carlndge + software lor C120 or wia 
swap lor Onr; 1 wrlh or wrthoul software 
Tel. Hornchurch 67487 after Spm 



POPULAR COMPUTING WEEKLY 



,S INSTRUMEKTS Tl' 



Tunnfll a, Centibug C2.&0 



3 caitnd^s including Chop- 






ill guarani«ad. <n ^ood o 



31 DECEMBER 19B3 



Id Gudgel, Msnoge- 



. (eve' 2. Including 



FOR SALE w swap 3h9fp U. 



8. Dig-Dofl. NIgni Cy- 



TEXAS Trgg/4A n 



1 including! Fltgh( 



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Hamel HempsleaO 10142} 



GAMES. nduOIng Asletotds. Pucky. 



VICiO SOFTWARE ID 

U UNEXPANDED V 

(V« 2i). including SKi- 






a. SkyhBiPrt, plus much nitpw A 



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ra Skyfta"* E7. ninimvfli ti, SiaiBai 



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POPULAR COMPUTING WEEKLY 




THERE'S NO 
n^ESENTUKE 
THE FUTURE. 



THE WORLDS FINEST PROGRAMMING 
TUTOR A K N 95 



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-z-.;;:^n 



LOGICS 






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UP UP AND 

AWAY 



m 




A[ last a genuinely interesting 
ediiCBIionai puckage [or the 
Spectrum — Ballooning from 



vents lo lower you and Ihc 

various points m your trip you 
will be given diffcrenl lasks lo 
complete like gelling and de- 
livering medical supplies. 

The manual/booklet not 
only describes the operation oi 
the gume. but is full of puzzles 
and information about the his- 
lory of ballooning — all illus- 
trated with photographs and 

Other programs in the samt 
being a special agent — your 



DREADED BUSS 

Lolhlorieo is well known to 



by the dreaded bugs whom he 
avoid at all costs. From 



Datakill which wipes t 



program is com- 
plcled il will run and you arc 
treated to another, more com- 
plex, program to debug. The 
game is graphically excellent 



PRICE PROBLEM , 



Whirlyhi[d Run is a Scram- 

tains and hills and past missile 
defences. 

Later levels include swarms 
of alien fighters trying lo 
knock you out of the sky. Like 
the original, you must replen- 
ish your fuel supply by bomb- 

(why this should work is a 
mystery to me). 

The game is graphically 
good, with the helicopter's 



lent would cost more 




D, a. Spec, 
s the Spec- 



HELPFUL CLUES 

Twin Kingdom Valley is an 
illustrated adventure game for 
the Acorn machines and the 
Commodore 64. 
' Like the Hobbil. it is basi- 
cally a teil style adventure. 



: illus- 



wiih < 

iraled. In this case there a 
175 different illustralions 
of which may conii 



helpful cl 






quality software. 

Now that the Dragon has 
been given a new lease of life 
by various injections of cash. 
Dragon Data are obviously 
keen to ensure that history 
does not repeat itself. To this 



BBC and 64| iliough. 
bottom of the adveni 
is the legend Eat youi 




Zod/aiwas the firE^I ot Ihf Oric 

thing like the cull status of [he 
Artie adventures. So, there 
will be quite a 
ihe follow-up House of Death. 
Although basically a text 

there arc various puzzles and 

The setting is a disused film 
set. the location for sudi clas- 
sic horror films ai 
/can Werewolf in Guernsey. 
TTie task is to find five 



n then 



the 



than jusl dressing. 

Judging by the screen snots 
the graphics are well up lo 
Hobbit standard and in other 
ways the games are compara- 
ble — both, for example, fea- 
ture the passage of lime as an 
important ingredient. Both 
can manage quite complicated 
instructions and, more gener- 
ally, their worlds are similar — 



starting plao 

Aside from logica 
problems can also 
form of monsters from Ihe 
movies like werewolve 



PURE FANTASY 

For those of you who, liki 
had their imagination fin 
Ihesequenccin-'W/whL' 
space ship slowh' ilntk^ 

of the Blue Dimuhc. .i 



POPULAR COMPUTING WEEKLY 



L 



NEW RELEASES 



ulion of ihe famous duck- 

rols of Ihe Orion 

e high resolution of ihc 
UBCcoupledwith superb 3D 
a spellbinding cffecl. 



SLIDER TOY 



nam Speclnun4SK 
Sondkr DlCTronia 

Shire Hill Industrial Ea 

EsscxCBllJAX 

ARCADE HIT 

Evexy so ofien. sccrnitiglj by 
some sort of Jungian tele- 
pathy, all Ihe software houses 
decide to bring out home mic- 
ro versions of an arcade hit at 

This month a is th 



cult by the presence of vatic 
thai tumble down the stack. 



sumably this means Iht lour- 

The game is supposed to be 
fiendishly difficult — vou 
don t ccn find out where lou 
arc going and uhdl vou ire 



e wondered what those 
g adverts saying 'Jvmbly 






Commodore 64 



een extended to a couple 
of momhs worth, by a number 
of special features. Most im- 
ponantly. there are a series of 

not been given away. 

Some of (he pictures scroll 
m different directions, making 
it much harder to see what you 

das a target number of moves 

only if you equal or beat this 



?1 DECEMBER I9B3 



ABOVE 
STANDARD 



Doubtless it's t 
for this siluat 
dramatically, 



documented verj' badly indeed 
— hence Ihe place for prog- 
rams like this. The manual 
that comes with the program is 

PiDgrun UIIKvnlhfrl 
Prtre fM.W 
Micro Commodore 64 
Supplier Oaklain 




There's no doubt about it. The 
Commodore 64 has great 
sound — if there's a single 
reason to switch From a Spec- 



are not very easy to get at — 
around five Poftes per noise. If 



your Commodore 64 i 
synthesiser, record your i 
tions and play them back. 



load, so i1 should see you all 
through Christmas. 

Your task is to locate a lost 
Aztec tomb, hidden deep 

Each location in Ihe jungle is 
illustrated by a picture like the 
Hobbi- 



The a 



)lurb w 






thai this is no ordinary jun) 
strange things can and win 
happen. The scope of the 
program and quality of the 
graphics should ensure that 
this one does well, 

Prognm A/lecTomb 

Micro Commodore A4 



Popular Compui 
don WC2R 31. 







POPULAR COMPUTIMG WEEKLY 




mmptle and inlerpret, b 



(raaped. rt is elagan 



nake Ihe.colon opUOTal, on Ihe undsrsland- 
Ihai mary people do nol find ii nBcessary. 

(eciBlly IhosB reated on Basic. 

Cl-Pll^f lirarl Pasr>al * "'^'°' fi^afl'anlage ol Pascal is Ihai ii is 

SlrUCIUren ra»C«ll ,a,a|y iniBrBrslBtt. As I said belora, OLr lar- 

Lporlh. picking oullhosB I Ihipik should appear lo allow easy prosram devalopmBot and BDlh 



BBC Basic prouides tha Ei/al lunclion lo evalj- 






Some Qeginners leel Ihal w 



inner i1 you jss slrucluied lechniquBS. Whan Ihls is compilad, tha compuler will m 

AmalejcprogrammaraorbeglnnarslindGn/D lonflBf krow Ihe variablBS D and ^ by nama 

asier Id usa, but ou: Ideal language is nol only by IhBlr addiess. Thus, it will nol be able l< 

imed al eillier group Beginners are well compile Ihe prauious rouline. 

efved by Basic, Pascal end Logo, «hilsl The nama of aadi variable could be slorBd ii 

jnalBUf programmera who psrasl in ignoring the compilod program, bul II would add con 

Iructured ptogrammlngflreaolngitiemsalvesa sideiaBly lo the space il lakes up. A mori 

(BserviCB, pertinent objaclion is thai [he compilafl code wi 

iBsic siruclures of Psscal. Omei elBmanls o( lualor, which forms a substantial pari of thi 



3l nol only So. I mainlam Itial c 



lions in IhB inlerprelar, but not in Itia compiler? t 






Ihay lead lo tha odd Pascal situation where ihe Iwo. which Is ugly So, do you attach more 

lol be mined — eg. 'A : = 2+2.0' valuBlocompatibilityortolBBlures? Personally, 

-ash on mosi systems. I suggest usar I am lempted nol to provide such luncUons al all, 

defined lypes should be miplBmanlad, wilh bul Ihare is room lor debala on Ihe aubject, 

itomalic typB conuersion wnere feasible Finally, some people have asked whelher Ihis 

Id ils siblings such BsAlaol and 8CPL, IS the language as Ihs mythical ideal. I shall nol 

block slructure. This allows yiMi lo treat a group divulge Ihe answar yet — bul il would be nice lo 

; a single sletement. i1 they ere find our ideal language ekislad. ■ 

ecial words or symbols This is Jetemy Ruslon 



Forty thieves 



floor in Ihe lorm o( a 



0^0-' ^\ 

As Ihete were more lawals than is shown, the 
riangle vias much larger than ihis, bul its 
janeral ariangemenl was as illuslrsled, with 
ivary row being complete. 

The nail day, when Alt Baba awoke, he found 
his hoirw Ihal the 40 Ihiavas had deparlod 

lad divided up the jewels equally amoi " " ~ 

ind. as they had one left over, Ihey 



0f3e4|iB'iand9(3=). 



Winner of Puzzle No B1 

d, Dyfed, who receives EiO 




I 
I 



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